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Knorr AGOR -15 - Historija


Knorr

Ernest R. Knorr bio je viši civilni i glavni inženjerski kartograf Hidrografskog ureda od 1860. do 1885. Ile je u velikoj mjeri zaslužan za uspjeh prvih sistematskih kartografskih i pomorskih napora američke mornarice, uključujući ekspediciju na sjeverni pol od strane Jeannette kroz Beringov prolaz i istraživanja pacifičke obale Jamestowna i Tuscarore. 1871. bio je citiran od strane hidrografa mornarice zbog "izuzetnih sposobnosti i. Stalne i neprestane pažnje prema njegovim dužnostima i interesima Ureda". Kasnije je postao prvi u Sjedinjenim Državama koji se zalagao za koordinaciju hidrografskih istraživanja širom svijeta, objavljujući 1879. godine o svom trošku Memoar o međunarodnoj suradnji u pomorskoj hidrografiji.

(AGOR-15: dp. 1.370; 1. 209 '; b. 40'; dr. 16 '; s. 13 k.; Kpl. 26; kl. Robert D. Conrad)

Naziv Knorr dodijeljen je AGOR-15 8. maja 1967. Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Mich., Započeo je izgradnju oceanografskog istraživačkog broda 3. aprila 1967. godine, a završetak je planiran za jesen 1968. godine.

Knorr, važan dodatak novoj floti mornarice za istraživanje oceana, prikupit će vitalne znanstvene podatke o neistraženim područjima mora za dobrobit svih ljudi širom svijeta.


Knorr AGOR -15 - Historija


RV Knorr popularno je poznata i po ulozi domaćina doktoru Robertu Ballardu i naučnom timu koji je pronašao RMS Titanic 1985. godine, nakon što je obavio povjerljivu misiju pregledavanja ostataka zloglasnih podmornica Scorpion (SSN-589) i Thresher (SSN-593). Iako je otkriće bilo KnorrNajveća slava slave, misija je bila samo mali dio njene 44-godišnje karijere u kojoj je proputovala 1,35 miliona milja (što je ekvivalent više od dva povratna putovanja do Mjeseca) na putovanjima od Arktika do južnih okeana i stotine mesta između. Lekcije naučene tokom decenija KnorrUsluge su uzete u obzir jer su se planovi za nasljednika počeli oblikovati tokom 1990 -ih.

S obzirom na to Armstrong bila u razvoju veći dio od dvije decenije, moglo bi zvučati iznenađujuće da je istraživačko plovilo nešto kraće od njenog prethodnika, njezina 40-dnevna izdržljivost je otprilike dvije sedmice manja i može ukrcati manje znanstvenika nego RV Knorr mogao. Uprkos ovome, Armstrong posjeduje značajne prednosti u odnosu na svog prethodnika, poput naprednijeg sistema dinamičkog pozicioniranja, veće uštede goriva i čišćih ispušnih plinova, a njezini motori proizvode i manje od polovine podvodne buke koju RV Knorr proizveden. Ovo je posebno važno jer Armstrong takođe ima najnapredniji istraživački niz sonara koje Mornarica poseduje.


'To je karneval ': Intervju s Robertom Ballardom

Uspješni morski znanstvenik Oceanografske institucije Woods Holea i voditelj televizijskog programa "National Geographic Explorer" nedavno je podijelio svoja razmišljanja sa Naval History Urednik Fred L. Schultz u vezi s predloženim podizanjem presjeka trupa iz Titanic i budućnost podvodne arheologije i aktivnosti na moru općenito.

Naval History: Kao što je ovo izdanje Naval Historydo čitalaca, grupa pod nazivom RMS Titanic, Inc., navodno će podići dio trupa broda i vratiti ga u Sjedinjene Države. Kao vođa ekspedicije koja je otkrila olupinu Titanic, šta mislite o tome?

Ballard: Prilično tužno. Karneval je, eto šta je. Šta još možete reći? Kao da je TitanicTragedija se nastavlja. Pokušali smo to smiriti, ali ovo nastavlja tragediju.

Naval History: Ljudi koji to rade očito to vide drugačije. Oni vide vrijednost u očuvanju artefakata iz olupine i u nuđenju nečega opipljivog za javnost da vidi i doživi.

Ballard: Da, oni to vide vrlo različito.

Naval History: Šta regulira tvrdnju o brodu i njene artefakte?

Ballard: Admiralitetsko pravo - drevni, drevni Admiralitetski zakon. Ne postoji zakon u dubokom moru, jer zakon nije sustigao vrijeme.

Naval History: Ako ste toliko protiv svega ovoga, zašto ste objavili koordinate Titanic olupina u vašoj knjizi?

Ballard: Francuzi su već bili svjesni koordinata, jer je prva ekspedicija na Titanik bila zajednička operacija koju su provele francuska i američka vlada, a koju su u mom slučaju sponzorirali Ured za pomorska istraživanja i šef pomorskih operacija za podmorničko ratovanje. Bio sam na brodu za istraživanje mornarice, Knorr (AGOR-15), koristeći sredstva mornarice. To je otprilike toliko francusko koliko možete.

Francuska ekspedicija nije bila operacija francuske mornarice. Iako se organizacija koja sponzorira ovu najnoviju operaciju u svojoj literaturi poziva na francusku mornaricu, francuska organizacija koja je podržava, IFREMER (francuski nacionalni institut za okeanografiju), nije francuska mornarica. To je kao da nazivamo NOAA -u (Nacionalnu upravu za oceanografiju i atmosferu) američkom mornaricom.

Francuski naučnici, Jean-Louis Michel, Jean Jarry i Bernard Pillaud, stajali su pored mene kad smo pronašli Titanic. Jean-Louis je zapisao koordinate i iscrtao ih na svojoj karti da vidi koliko se približio. Promašio je to pri svom prvom trčanju za 300 metara i udario je pesnicom o stol. Na moje pitanje zašto je uznemiren, rekao je: "Ubit će me." Podsjetio sam ga da smo zajedno otkrili brod, ali on je rekao da je na mom satu, a ne na njegovom. Istina je da smo ovo uradili zajedno.

Pa tko je prvi nosio sponzora ovog podizanja trupa do Titanic?? Francuski. Imali su koordinate. Naravno da jesu jer smo bili na istoj ekspediciji. I imali su sva prava da imaju te koordinate. Ideja da sam objavio koordinate kako bi ih Francuzi mogli potražiti u mojoj knjizi je apsurdna. Moja knjiga nije ni objavljena sve dok Francuzi već nisu izvršili naknadne zarone na Titanic. Pa u čemu bi bio smisao ne objavljivanje koordinata?

Jeste li pronašli koordinate mjesta Bismarck u mojoj knjizi na tu temu? Ne zašto? Jer ja ih jedino poznajem. Jeste li u mojim knjigama pronašli koordinate svih brodova u Iron Bottom Soundu [Guadalcanal]? Ne zašto? Jer ja ih jedino poznajem. Upravo sam pronašao rimsku flotu, jeste li pronašli njene koordinate? Ne. Mogu to zaštititi. Ali ne mogu zaštititi koordinate koje su već poznate javnosti.

Naval History: Što će se dogoditi kad se ova ekspedicija vrati u Sjedinjene Države s komadom broda?

Ballard: To će biti prvi put da se Titanic je zvanično došao u zemlju i nisam siguran - ako čitate Titanic Memorijalni zakon iz 1986. - da to neće predstavljati pravni problem za ovu organizaciju. Gospodin zadužen za ovu ekspediciju možda testira zakon. The Titanic Memorijalni zakon iz 1986. ostavlja mnogo toga za tumačenje. Zanimljivo je da dolazi trup, a ne artefakti.

Šta su rekli prije pet godina? Zar nisu rekli da neće uzeti ništa s broda? Brodsko gnijezdo vrane je uništeno. Ponašali su se začuđeno: „Šalite se. Uništeno je? Onda mora da je ozbiljno, nastupilo je ozbiljno propadanje ”, rekli su. Pa, imam fotografije njihove prve ekspedicije, jednu s vraninim gnijezdom i jednu snimljenu kasnije u istoj ekspediciji bez gnijezda vrane. ”

Naval History: Jeste li se ikada suočili sa uključenim ljudima?

Ballard: Da, ali većina novinara nije. Neće provjeriti jesu li lijeni. Ispričao sam priču Bostonski globus, ali to nisu provjerili. Rekla sam to svakome kome je stalo da sluša, ali niko od njih nije prošao čekove. Brojni povjesničari povezani s Titanic su potvrdili da je gnijezdo vrane uništeno.

Tvrde da je na brodu došlo do ozbiljnog propadanja, a to čine iz straha da će se dogoditi nešto strašno ako puste brod da sjedi još samo jedan dan. Kako bi to ilustrirali, kažu da se brodska gimnazija urušila.

Pa, nije li čudno što naše slike otkrića prikazuju urušenu gimnaziju? Gimnazija se vjerovatno srušila nakon udara neposredno nakon potonuća broda. Da, zaista se srušio. Želite li vidjeti njegovu fotografiju? Sada kažu da se sve te promjene odvijaju brzim tempom i da moraju učiniti ono što su rekli da neće učiniti, jer moraju spasiti brod.

Reći će vam da je Bob Ballard pokupio neke artefakte sa dna okeana i Mediterana. Ali postoji ogromna razlika. Učinio sam to pod vodstvom arheologa i samo na njihov zahtjev.

Trebaju li svijetu povijesti i arheologije stručnjaci? Za ekspediciju imaju konzervatora/konzervatora, ali postoji velika razlika između konzervatora i povjesničara ili arheologa.

Naval History: Čini se da sve ovo ukazuje na Zakon o admiralitetu.

Ballard: To je zakon besplatan za sve. I sve dok ne uništimo dovoljno piramida, valjda, nećemo shvatiti da je ovo zastarjelo. Koliko uništenih Titanichoće li potrajati?

Naval History: Vratimo se na one koji kažu da ih podizanjem ovih artefakata čini dostupnijima javnosti.

Ballard: Sad gledam dalje od toga. Zapravo sam ovo vježbao 30-ak godina. Vidim da dolazi dan kada će biti tehnološki lako posjetiti Titanic na informativnom autoputu.

Zamislite da pratite britanske istraživače koji su pronašli grobnicu kralja Tuta, kada neki momak kaže: "Upakujte ga!" Pitate ga na šta misli. "Maknite to odavde", kaže on. „Niko nikada ne bi došao na ovo mjesto da to vidi. Vrati ga u London. ” Pokušavate ga zaustaviti, govoreći da će neko stajati ovdje jednog dana, grobnica neće biti ovdje, pa će se pitati zašto. To je cijelo izdanje Elgin mramora. Zašto su Elgin mramori u Londonu? Trebali bi visiti na Akropoli. Ali oni su u Londonu - lijepo predstavljeni, ali potpuno izvan konteksta.

Zamislite 12.000 stopa dolje, kako vozite dnom okeana i pronalazite dvije cipele, jedna do druge, s prstima usmjerenim prema gore. Nekoliko stopa dalje nalazi se pojas, a gore još uvijek šešir, s ručnim satom odmaknutim na jednu stranu. Da li biste ih podigli?

Naval History: Ne.

Ballard: Zašto?

Naval History: Čini se očiglednim.

Ballard: Ako biste ušli u muzej i vidjeli jednu cipelu, a neko bi rekao da je iz Titanic, da li bi to imalo istu moć?

Naval History: Ne.

Ballard: Naravno da ne. Koje pravo onda ima neko da uništi to buduće iskustvo? Ove cipele postoje već 80 godina. Hoće li odjednom otići negdje? To je kao razlika između hodanja po bojnom polju u Gettysburgu ili da vam Disney to pokaže.

Naval History: Zašto mislite da je relativno mali broj ljudi izrazio mišljenje o ovome?

Ballard: Zato što smo mi McDonald's. Brzo proždiremo stvari i bacimo papir i čaše od stiropora. Drugi razlog je taj što nismo uspjeli izaći i dokumentirati ono što je učinjeno. Nismo se uspjeli vratiti i pokazati vam slike prije i poslije.

Naval History: Rekli ste da nema rasprave o ovom pitanju. Da li biste učestvovali u jednom?

Ballard: Koja je svrha? Pitanje je, na kraju, je li to važno. Mislim, biste li raspravljali o O.J. Simpson? Mislim da je važno voditi debatu. Ljudi u Globus rekao da američki narod uživa u ovome. Rekao sam, da, i oni su uživali u javnim pogubljenjima.

Naval History: Treba li ova organizacija to učiniti kako bi održala svoje potraživanje?

Ballard: Admiralitetski zakon zahtijeva da ga donesete kući. Ne možete reći da sam nešto pronašao i ostavio - što sam i učinio - i dalje to tvrditi. Stavila sam ploču na to i rekla da me ostavi na miru. Ali nije moje. Nisam ga doneo kući.

Evo momka koji je to tvrdio, koji je sa njega vratio stvari, ali nije vratio ništa od stvarnog broda. 99,9% broda je još uvijek tamo, ali on ostaje pri svom zahtjevu. Ima izlete. Jeste li dobili poziv od Burta Reynoldsa? Ja imam svoje. Jeste li znali da će “Nepotopiva Molly Brown” biti tamo? Da, ide i Debbie Reynolds. Prodaja ugljena na internetu bila je previše.

Naval History: Prodaja čega?

Ballard: Možete kupiti Titanic uglja putem Interneta. To niste znali? Trenutno prodaju ugalj za 25 dolara. Niste uhvatili USA Today oglas za Božić?

Dakle, neko drugi plaća ovaj put. To je stara starica iz Pasadene koja želi vidjeti Debbie Reynolds. Ljudi idu na „ljubavni brod“ da ga gledaju na televiziji zatvorenog kruga, što mislim da je udarac. To je karneval.

Naval History: Čuli smo mnogo o vašim zaronima na brodovima Iron Bottom Sound na Guadalcanalu. Koji su tvoji planovi?

Ballard: Jedan od razloga za snimanje Iron Bottom Sound -a bio je, opet, pokušaj projiciranja u budućnost. Jedan od razloga zašto smo bili na Britannic- sestra od Titanic—Prošlog ljeta trebalo je tražiti načine da nauče više o pomorskoj historiji, pa čak i drevnoj, gdje ona postaje arheološka. Duboko more je čuvar istorije.

To se počelo odvijati u mom životu kada sam pronašao Titanic a onda kad sam pronašao zastrašujuće svastike još naslikane na palubi Bismarck 50 godina nakon što je potonula.

I onda smo otišli na Guadalcanal i vidjeli sjaj na oružju te se popeli do mosta Quincy (CA-39), a sva maskirna boja još je bila tamo, savršeno očuvana. Torpeda su bila u lansiranjima, a dubinski naboji u stalcima. Topovi su bili upereni u posljednju salvu, zaključanu u borbi. Postojalo je bojno polje. Guadalcanal je bio bojno polje.

U novije vrijeme, tijekom našeg rada na Mediteranu, pronašli smo flotu rimskih brodova koje je zahvatila oluja. U očajničkom pokušaju da se spasu, posade su počele bacati svoj teret preko broda, ostavljajući tragove krhotina brodovima. Dakle, postoji pomorska katastrofa sačuvana od prije dva milenijuma.

Ako počnete promatrati sposobnost dubokog mora da sačuva našu povijest, shvatit ćete da bojno polje ili mjesto pomorske katastrofe stavlja artefakte u kontekst.

Kad smo se vratili u Luzitanija, uspjeli smo riješiti pitanje je li časopis bio pun ili ne, jer je časopis još uvijek bio tamo. Uspjeli smo pokazati da nije eksplodirao. Nije to zbog ratnih materijala pogođenih torpedom. Udario je u bunker za ugalj, prazan bunker i zapalio ugljenu prašinu koja je eksplodirala i potopila brod.

Sposobnost da se vratite nazad i bavite se forenzičkom naukom, to je ono što je uzbudljivo. U slučaju Guadalcanala, imamo mogućnost dopustiti ljudima da ga posjete. Kada je Arizona pao, je li iko ikada pomislio da ćemo izgraditi spomenik iznad nje i da će posjetitelji zapravo moći izaći tamo i gledati kako mjehurići nafte izlaze na površinu? Siguran sam da kada su sahranili [generala Georgea A.] Custera nikada nisu mislili da će biti turizma, da će ljudi doći i šetati ratištem Little Big Horna.

Naval History: Kako se bude nalazilo sve više web lokacija, kako ćete spriječiti ljude da polažu zahtjeve prema Zakonu o admiralitetu?

Ballard: Pa, kako spriječiti ljude da unište nacionalni park Yosemite? Konačno ubjeđujete moći. Ali tim ljudima morate pokazati mjesto koje će biti uništeno. Dakle, pitanje je kako doći do toga.

Postigli smo određeni napredak, iz knjige Clive Cussler, Podignite Titanik!, ljudima koji zapravo misle da to možda nije dobra ideja. The Titanic može biti žrtveno janje koje to čini. Ljudima se može zgaditi karneval jer će se samo pogoršati.

Naval History: Jeste li ikada imali želju pronaći avion Amelije Earhart?

Ballard: Napravio sam mnogo domaćih zadaća po tom pitanju, a toliko je neizvjesnosti. Koliko ja vidim, vjerovatno je otkačila.

Da je avion sletio u plitku vodu, bio bi toliko dobro oksigeniran na sunčevoj svjetlosti da bi do sada već praktično nestao. Jedini način na koji ćete ikada imati avion Amelije Earhart je ako je uronio u duboku vodu. Ali to bi bilo slučajno, mislim.

Naval History: Koje su glavne razlike između rada u Atlantskom i Tihom okeanu, ako ih ima?

Ballard: Pacifik je tako velik. Općenito, to košta više novca jer morate ići na veće udaljenosti. Guadalcanal je puno posla. Sjeli smo u luku i čekali dijelove koji su dolijetali iz San Diega. Nema trgovina, ništa osim malarije. To je džungla.

Dakle, to je logističko pitanje. Ali ispostavilo se da je većina istorije na sjevernoj hemisferi. Većina okeana nalazi se na južnoj hemisferi.

Naval History: Šta vas trenutno najviše zanima?

Ballard: Jako sam zainteresiran za Crno more zbog njegovih anaerobnih uvjeta. Tu zaista želim raditi jer bi se tako sačuvala istorija bronzanog doba u lijepom stanju. Nema kiseonika nema bušilica za drvo. Brodovi bi bili sačuvani, mumificirani. Zbog hladnog rata niko tamo nije učinio ništa sveobuhvatno. Tako da znam šta želim da radim, a to nije Amelia Earhart.

Naval History: Šezdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća o Sea Labu se mnogo raspravljalo. Koju ulogu vidite da će podvodna morska stanica sa stalnim načinom igranja imati u budućnosti?

Ballard: Ja sam zagovornik prisustva na dnu okeana, ali ne mislim da će ambijentalni život biti sveprisutan. Upravo smo završili projekat Jason na Floridi, gdje smo radili sa Aquarius Habitat, NOAA -inom saturacijom. Tamo smo zasitili naučnike dvije sedmice, živeći u ambijentalnim uslovima.

Sjedinjene Države imaju dugu istoriju mogućnosti zasićenja za istraživanje i mislim da će za to uvijek biti mjesta. Mislim da to neće biti sveprisutna upotreba u javnosti. Mislim da nema komercijalnu vidljivost, čak ni za zabavu, a zasigurno ne za život, što se tiče premještanja velikog broja ljudi pod okean i njihovog boravka u ambijentalnim uvjetima.

Vidim vrijednost u uspostavljanju prisustva u okeanu, posebno mobilnog prisustva. Radio sam dugo tokom Hladnog rata pokušavajući uvjeriti mornaricu da treba izgraditi drugu vrstu podmornice. Naravno, niko to nije htio čuti.

Ali ja sam zagovornik podmornica uključenih u teren. Zapravo, kada sam prvi put došao u mornaricu prije 30 godina, došao sam kao bivši oficir vojske. Moja prvobitna zadaća bila je vojna obavještajna služba i analiza terena, a moje iskustvo kao naučnika na zemlji bilo je u topografiji i terenu. Bio sam zadivljen kad sam otkrio da je stav mornarice prema dnu okeana bio da ga izbjegne na svaki rizik, a ne da ga koristi u svoju taktičku korist.

Iz nekog naivnog razloga, mislio sam da bi podmornice na nuklearni pogon mogle sletjeti na dno oceana. Jedino što je u ranim danima moglo biti je Nautilus- ne [Admirala Hymana] Rickovera Nautilus (SSN-571), ali Žila Verna Nautilus.

Bio sam zagovornik modifikacije podmornice poput one NR-1-jedina duboko ronilačka podmornica s nuklearnim pogonom koju je Mornarica ikada izgradila-u borca ​​koji bi mogao djelovati na neravnom terenu. To bi imalo više smisla od pokušaja da se napravi velika 688 [los angeles-klasa] ili 637 [Jesetra-class] brod u podmornicu s terenom.

Nisam još imao sreće s tim. I nisam puno radio s MIT-om (Tehnološki institut u Massachusettsu) i mornaričkim nuklearnim oficirima na MIT-u u potrazi za borbenim podmornicama vezanim za teren.

Naval History: Čini se da nova napadna podmornica mornarice, NSSN, još uvijek prolazi kroz vrlo fluidan proces projektiranja.

Ballard: Zvali smo ga NRX. U vrijeme relativnog mira, mislim da bismo trebali eksperimentirati, a ne samo nastaviti pripreme za posljednji rat. Moramo se pobrinuti da imamo model.

Naval History: Koje različite promjene dizajna imate na umu?

Ballard: Mala podmornica. Talasna dužina terena u okeanu je oko 200 do 220 stopa. Ako postanete mnogo veći od toga, ne možete se uklopiti u pejzaž. Morate zapamtiti da je mnogo podmornica projektirano oko njihovih elektrana. Dizajnirani su da prelaze velike udaljenosti, pucaju u metke i prelaze velike udaljenosti kako bi dobili više metaka.

Dakle, elektrana dominira, što i ne čudi. Pogledajte ko je bio glavni: admiral Rickover. Što ako mislite da su to sredstva raspoređena unaprijed koja se stavljaju na teren i ponovno opskrbljuju na terenu? Ne bi zahtijevali duge tranzite. Mogli su ih čak i odvući na teren.

Naval History: Vučeno sa čim?

Ballard: Podmornica na nuklearni pogon, ili čak konvencionalna. Mislim, podmornica s balističkim raketama ili čamac za brzi napad mogli bi nositi tu imovinu na teren.

Naval History: To bi bilo vraćanje na japanske patuljaste podmornice Drugog svjetskog rata, zar ne?

Ballard: Nije tako mali. Sjećam se kada je viceadmiral Ron Thunman bio zamjenik načelnika pomorskih operacija za podmorničko ratovanje, a ja sam ušao u njegovu kancelariju s modelom grebena Reykjanes koji je grupa diplomaca izgradila na osnovu povjerljivih podataka mornarice tog područja. Položio sam ga na njegov uredski stol u Pentagonu, a on je rekao: "Šta je ovo?" Rekao sam: "To je vaše bojno polje budućnosti." Pitao sam se zašto smo naše podmornice postavili gore na prigušnicama između Grenlanda i Islanda te Islanda i Norveške i Britanskih otoka. Zašto nisu bili na terenu? Podsjetio sam ga da je to sve magnetska, vulkanska stijena. Teško je, odjekuje, bučno je i savršeno je mjesto za prikrivanje sila. Rekao sam mu da bih htio uzeti NR-1 na njegovo bojno polje i demonstrirati njegovu održivost, djelujući s tradicionalnom posadom mornarice. Dali su mi krstarenje.

Godine objavio sam članak o tome National Geographic. Skalirali smo 17 vulkana i nikada nismo bili udaljeni samo nekoliko stopa od najpodlijeg, najgadnijeg terena za koji ste se ikada mogli nadati da ćete imati na licu zemlje - primitivnog, vulkanskog terena, bez puteva, pećina, prevjesa, cijevi od lave. Radili smo udobno, spuštajući podmornicu na raznim mjestima.

Time je mornarica postala svjesna da postoji okeansko dno umjesto samo trodimenzionalnog fluidnog prostora, koji, iskreno, nije jako debeo. Ako uzmete košarkašku lopticu i nazovete je zemljom, stavite je u kadu i podignete, voda prilijepljena uz košarku predstavljala bi okeane svijeta, u razmjeru. To je bliska borba prsa u prsa. Mornarica mora shvatiti da tamo postoji ratište. Rusi su to učinili dobro, jer su Rusi prvo bili vojska, a drugo mornarica.

Mislim da bi to trebali gledati sada. U svakom budućem sukobu pokušat ćemo prodrijeti na neprijateljske granice. A najbolji način za to je s mora.


Naša istorija

Povijest Knorra priča je o strasti, istraživanju i inovacijama.

Godine 1838. Carl Heinrich Knorr otvorio je tvornicu u Heilbronnu u Njemačkoj koja je njemačku industriju kave snabdjela cikorijom.

Gospodin Knorr počeo je eksperimentirati sa sušenjem povrća i začina, čuvajući njihovu nutritivnu vrijednost i okus. To je dovelo do lansiranja prve Knorrove asortimana suhih juha na europskom kontinentu 1873. Ovaj progresivni napredak doveo je do niza poboljšanja u tehnici i razvoju novih proizvoda.

Od 1838. godine naša filozofija hrane usredotočena je na visoku kvalitetu koju održavamo u svakom od naših proizvoda.

Godine 1957. vodeći brendovi Knorr prodavali su se u samo osam zemalja, a do 2000. godine proizvodi Knorr prodavali su se u gotovo devedeset zemalja svijeta. Iste godine doveo je do važne prekretnice Knorr se pridružio porodici Unilever.

Knorr je lansiran u Indiji 1996. godine, a sada imamo neodoljive juhe, ukusne rezance i aromatične masale.

Knorrovi proizvodi dostupni su širom svijeta, ponosimo se istinskim razumijevanjem lokalnih okusa. Naše globalno i lokalno razumijevanje omogućava nam da vam ponudimo odlične međunarodne degustacije, pomažući vam da probate autentične okuse iz kultura širom svijeta.

1996. godine Knorr je lansirao juhe u Indiji s nizom od 10 okusa. Knorr asortiman juha sada je dostupan u 20 ukusnih i uzbudljivih okusa sa 100% pravim povrćem i bez dodanih konzervansa.

Naš asortiman supa za kuhanje dostupan je u širokom asortimanu i ima klasike poput čorbe od gustog rajčice i miješanog povrća, kao i autentične internacionalne okuse, poput talijanskih gljiva i meksičkog paradajza. Ove supe služe četiri i savršene su za cijelu porodicu za piće neposredno prije večere.

Za vaše male obroke između gladi, između obroka, imamo asortiman supa Knorr Cup-A-Soup koji su dostupni u 9 okusa poput miješanog povrća, slatkog kukuruznog vega, manchow vega i rajčice.

2010. godine lansirali smo Soupy Noodles - čarobnu mješavinu masala rezanci s dobrotom povrća u obilnoj čorbi. Koristeći naše globalno razumijevanje, sada imamo niz okusa iz cijelog svijeta - kineski Schezwan, kineski Hot & amp začinjen, talijanski sir i bilje, talijanska Margherita zajedno s našom omiljenom Desi Masala Chaska za sva vremena!

Začini su najvažniji za indijsko kuhanje, a sada s Knorrom koji proširuje svoju stručnost na masale, možete doma napraviti jela poput restorana poput biryanija ili pav bhajija. Uz nevjerojatnu mješavinu začina i prepoznatljivih okusa, imamo 8 masala uključujući Sambhar, Chanu, Biryani, pileću masalu u našem asortimanu Knorr Masala. Osim okusa koji šmrče, Knorr masalas vašim jelima daje i savršenu konzistenciju, boju i aromu pojačala. Tako da sada možete napraviti domaći restoran kvalitetne crvene i debele pav bhaji. Ovaj asortiman idealan je za strastvene kuhare koji vole kuhati i spremati ukusna jela za svoju porodicu.

Naša posvećenost pružanju najkvalitetnije hrane vodi nas u novu budućnost koja obuhvaća održivost. Ulažemo u nove, efikasnije procese i prihvaćamo principe održivosti kroz svoje poslovanje, od sjemena do žlice.

Iako to nije lak put, nabavljanje naših sastojaka odgovorno pomaže da se osigura da možemo nastaviti pružati porodicama širom svijeta odlične degustacije i hranjive obroke godinama koje dolaze.


Povijest WHOI brodova

Atlantis, 1931-1964
Atlantis bio je prvi istraživački brod Oceanografske institucije Woods Hole i prvi brod izgrađen posebno za interdisciplinarna istraživanja u biologiji mora, geologiji mora i fizičkoj oceanografiji. Kolumbo Iselin, njen prvi majstor i veliki utjecaj na njen dizajn, smatrao je da brzina nije bitna postojanost, tišina i domet krstarenja su od primarne važnosti.

Nakon izgradnje WHOI je tražio odgovarajući naziv za istraživačko plovilo. Povjerenik Institucije, Alexander Forbes, nedavno je kupio škunu po imenu Atlantis od Iselin. Gospodin Forbes je prekrstio svoju škunu kako bi novo istraživačko plovilo moglo dobiti ime Atlantis.

"A-boat" je napravio 299 krstarenja i prešao 700.000 milja, radeći sve vrste nauka o okeanu. 1966. godine Atlantis prodan je Argentini, obnovljen i preimenovan El Austral. Koristi se kao istraživačko plovilo, a posadom ga upravlja argentinsko pomorsko osoblje.

Specifikacije
Izgrađeno: 1931. u Kopenhagenu, Danska.
Dizajnirali su ga Owen i Minot posebno za WHOI
Dužina: 143 '6 "
Oprema: Marconi Ketch
Površina jedra: 7,200 sq. Ft
Širina: 29 '
Glavni: 144 'od vodovoda
Gaz: 18 '
Mizen: 100 'od vodovoda
Kapacitet: posada- 19, nauka- 9

(Fotografija ljubaznošću WHOI arhive)

Asterias, 1931-1980
Nazvana po lokalnoj morskoj zvijezdi, Asterias izgrađen je od bijelog i južnog tvrdog bora i dizajnom je bio sličan komercijalnim ribarskim brodovima tog doba. The Asterias i Atlantis izgrađene su kao prva plovila Institucije.

Prvi Asterias je napravio najmanje 10.000 kratkih putovanja, od Mainea do New Yorka, prvenstveno radi testiranja naučne opreme. Gotovo svaki član naučno -tehničkog osoblja imao je potrebu za Asterias u neko vrijeme. Njezin izvrstan dizajn i konstrukcija učinili su je prirodnim brodom.

Asterias prodan je kompaniji Ocean Research Engineering 1980. 1985. Edwin Athearn, njen bivši kapetan spasio ju je od uništenja i zajedno s Daveom Lewisom vratio ime i stanje broda.

Specifikacije
Izgradio: 1931. Casey Boat Building Co., Fairhaven, MA, za WHOI
Dužina: 40,5 '
Širina: 13,6 '
Gaz: 5'3 "

(Fotografija zahvaljujući arhivi WHOI -a)

Anton Dohrn, 1940-1947
Anton Dohrn dat je Oceanografskoj instituciji Woods Hole u junu 1940. za naučni rad na lokalnom području. Brod je napravio najmanje 40 krstarenja od Mainskog zaljeva do obale New Jerseyja, testirajući battermografe, podvodne kamere i druge novo dizajnirane instrumente te provodeći podvodne eksperimente prijenosa zvuka i lučke studije. Prema riječima Dicka Edwardsa, dugogodišnjeg nadzornika WHOI -a za pomorstvo, za održavanje je bilo potrebno osam kaljužnih pumpi Anton Dohrn na površini.

Brod je prodan u travnju 1947. i trebao se koristiti kao poštanski brod između New Bedforda i otoka Cuttyhunk.

Specifikacije
Izgrađeno: 1911. u Majamiju, Florida, za instituciju Carnegie
Dužina: 70 '
Širina: 16'9 "
Gaz: 6 '
Kapacitet: posada - 29, nauka - 17

(Fotografija zahvaljujući arhivi WHOI -a)

Balanus, 1946-1950
Balanus korišten je tokom ratnih godina kao lučki prijevoz. WHOI je kupio plovilo 1946. od Vita Lo Piccola iz Bostona za upotrebu prvenstveno u obalnim vodama. Balanus napravio 26 krstarenja. Njen rad se uglavnom bavio fizičkom oceanografijom, ali je uključivao i vuču planktona, rad sa kamerom, ispitivanje instrumentacije i trenutna mjerenja. Balanus je 1950. prodana D.L. Edgerton, MD ribar.

Specifikacije
Izgradio: 1940-41 Reid, Winthrop, MA.
Dizajnirano: Eldredge-McGinnis Co., Boston, MA, kao dragger
Dužina: 75 '
Širina: 18 '
Gaz: 8 '
Kapacitet: posada - 8, nauka - 5
Imena: Mali Sam (Q-68) 1941-1946

(Fotografija zahvaljujući arhivi WHOI -a)

Caryn, 1948-1958
Priča se da je tako Caryn izvorno je izgrađen posebno za krijumčarenje. Kada je plovilo prvi put porinuto, nosilo je 4.000 kvadratnih metara platna. WHOI je kupio Caryn 1947. godine od svog trećeg vlasnika, C. R. Hotchkissa iz New Yorka.

U WHOI -u, Caryn napravio je 110 krstarenja, uglavnom duž istočne obale kroz Karibe i oko Bermuda. Poduzete su sve vrste oceanografije. Brod je 1958. godine prodat S.H. Swift, preimenovan je u Black Swan i bavio se čarter trgovinom. U novogodišnjoj noći 1974. na ostrvu St. Maarten's u Zapadnoj Indiji plovilo je izgorjelo.

Specifikacije
Izgradio: 1927. u Singapuru, C.E. Nicholson
Dužina: 97.9 '
Širina: 21 '"
Gaz: 11'3 "
Imena: Crni labud 1927-1930,
Santa 1930-1935,
Marie 1947-1948,
Caryn 1948-1958

(Fotografija zahvaljujući arhivi WHOI -a)

Albatross III, 1948-1958
Brod je prvi put plovio pod tim imenom Harvard za Sjevernoatlantsko istraživanje ribarstva. 1941. obnovljena je i preimenovana Bellefonte i koristila ih je američka mornarica za ratno patroliranje. Po povratku u Woods Hole 1944., pod imenom Albatross III, plovilo se povremeno koristilo do 1955. godine, kada su sredstva postala dostupna. Albatross III je bio u punom pogonu do 1959. godine, kada je stavljen van pogona i prodan ribaru Hyannis, MA.

Albatross III bio je posuđen Oceanografskoj instituciji Woods Hole od 1951-1952, a također je korišten zajedno na drugim krstarenjima od 1948-1959. Albatross III je napravio ukupno 128 krstarenja, sva u sjevernom Atlantiku. Većina njih bila su dio ribolovnih istraživanja, ali mnoga krstarenja uključivala su hidrostanice, fotografije s dna, vježbe sa zanošenim bocama i trenutna mjerenja.

Specifikacije
Izgrađen: 1926 kao parna koćarica
Dužina: 179 '
Širina: 24 '
Gaz: 12 '
Kapacitet: posada - 21, nauka - 6
Imena: 1926 kao parna koćarica Harvard 1926-1941, Bellefonte, 1941-1948, Albatross III 1948-1959

(Fotografija zahvaljujući arhivi WHOI -a)

Bear, 1951-1963
Izgrađen tokom Drugog svjetskog rata kao nosač trupa u južnom Pacifiku, Bear WHOI je iznajmio 1951. godine, a kupio 1952. Brod je izvršio 192 krstarenja zapadnim sjevernim Atlantikom, odlazeći istočno do Bermuda. Bear vršio je akustična, batimetrijska i seizmička mjerenja i učestvovao u osmatranju riba.

Brod je 1963. godine prodan ribaru iz New Bedforda i preuređen kao pokrovitelj.

Specifikacije
Izgradio: 1941-1942 Herreshoff, Bristol, RI, kao obalni transport
Dužina: 103 '
Širina: 21 '
Gaz: 10 '
Kapacitet: posada-23, nauka-36

(Oceanografska institucija Woods Hole)

Crawford, 1956-1969
Crawford, a former US Coast Guard cutter, was transferred to WHOI in 1956. The ship underwent considerable renovation at Munro Shipyard in Boston, including an increase in her fuel capacity giving her a range of 30 days and 6,000 miles. She worked in the North and South Atlantic, including the Caribbean Sea amd carried specialized gear for studying hurricanes. The vessel was mainly used for working on hydrographic stations, in long line fishing studies, and in surveying for Texas Towers.

In a novel attempt to increase working space on the vessel, an aircraft wing was attached to her port side in 1980, though it was later dismantled and the experiment was never repeated.

Crawford made 175 cruises for WHOI until 1968. In 1970 the vessel was sold to the University of Puerto Rico.

Specifications
Built: 1927, Great Lakes
Length: 125'
Beam: 23'
Draft: 12'3"
Capacity: crew-17, science-9

(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Aries, 1959-1960
The Aries, a 93 foot ketch, arrived in Woods Hole in March 1959 as a gift from R.J. Reynolds. She was refitted as a research vessel by June 1959 and was then used continuously on current measuring cruises off Bermuda as part of a joint project shared by WHOI and the British National Institute of Oceanography until August 1960. Her longest stay ashore was from December 14th, 1959, until February 2nd, 1960, when her engine was replaced by the a spare reconditioned and brought from England. Bermuda proved to be a particularly good base for the Aries since her fresh water storage limited her time at sea to about two weeks. Aries spent a total of 206 days at sea, 186 days of which were on cruises to deep-water, and of this deep-water time 129 days were spent in the selected working area. Captain J. W. Gates was in charge until after the refit when Captain H. H. Seibert took over until the end of the project. Mr. C. L. McCann was mate for the entire period.

Specifications
Built: 1953
Length: 93'
Beam: 19'6"

(Photo courtesty of WHOI Archives)

Chain, 1958-1979
In 1958, the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS), took over the operation of Chain, a Navy salvage vessel, and under an agreement with the Navy, the ship came to Woods Hole. Chain's first nine cruises at WHOI were made with an MSTS crew. In 1959, WHOI assumed operation of the vessel.

Chain made a total of 129 scientific cruises, including a cruise that took her around the world in 1970-1971. She traveled some 600,000 miles and was used in every type of ocean science. Long a favorite for her seaworthiness, Chain's last cruise ended in December 1975. In June 1979 the vessel was towed away for scrap.

Specifications
Built: 1944 by the Basalt Rock Co., Napa, CA
Length: 213'
Beam: 41'
Draft: 16'16"
Capacity: crew-29, science-26

(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Anton Bruun, 1962-1964
Aras, a long graceful steel ship, was originally built for Hugh J. Chisholm of the Oxford Paper Co. as a private yacht. The US Navy purchased the vessel in April 1941, for $250,000, for use as a patrol gunboat and re-christened it USS Williamsburg.

In 1945, after a successful tour of duty in the North Atlantic, Williamsburg was to be converted to an amphibious-force flagship. Instead, she was refitted at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, DC, as President Truman's yacht. President Eisenhower decommissioned the yacht in 1953 due to her high operating costs. The National Science Foundation acquired the vessel on 8/9/1962, refitted it for science, and christened it Anton Bruun in memory of the noted Danish marine biologist who chaired the first International Oceanographic Commission.

The vessel was chartered to WHOI for the International Indian Ocean Expedition, originally for a 4 year period. Anton Bruun made 9 legs of a cruise for this project, from March 1963 to December 1964, and then returned to the Navy in late December 1964. In 1980 the Endangered Properties Program planned to restore the vessel, but as late as 1984 nothing had been done.

Specifications
Built: 1931 by Bath Iron Works, Maine
Length: 244'
Beam: 36'
Braft: 16'
Names: Aras 1931-1941,
USS Williamsburg (PG-56) 1941-1962,
Anton Bruun 1962-1964

(Photo courtesty of WHOI Archives)

Atlantis II, 1963-1996
Atlantis II was named for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's first research vessel. Long considered the flagship of the Institution's fleet, the ship traveled around the world and was involved with every type of ocean science investigation.

In 1979 Atlantis II underwent a major mid-life refit. The conversion of the vessels power source from steam to diesel reduced the vessel's operating cost, increased its range of travel, and increased its selection of ports.

In 1983 a deck hanger and A-frame were installed enabling her to handle the launch and recovery of the submersible Alvin. Atlantis II served as Alvin's tender from 1984 to 1996.

Atlantis II concluded 34 years of service, over one million miles sailed for science, and more than 8,000 days at sea, a record unequaled by any research vessel. In 1996 she was delivered to Shaula Navigation, based in Boulder CO for rechristening as Antares and a planned new career as a fisheries research vessel in the North Pacific and Gulf of Alaska.

Specifications
Built: 1963 Maryland Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Baltimore, MD.
Designed: Bethlehem Steel Central Technical Dept., Quincy, MA, and M. Rosenblatt and Son, NY
Length: 210'
Beam: 44'
Draft: 17'
Speed, full: 13.5 knots
cruising: 12 knots
Endurance: 45 days
Capacity: crew-31, science 25

(Photo courtesy of WHOI Archives)

Gosnold, 1962-1973
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution purchased Explorer, a coastal cargo ship, in March 1962 from a marine salvage yard. As a way of distinguishing this ship from the many other "Explorers in existence, it was named Gosnold by its master Harry Seibert, naval architect John Leiby, and Port Captain John Pike in honor of the captain Bartholomew Gosnold, the first European to land and settle in Woods Hole (1602). The vessel made 206 cruises from Maine to South America and out to Bermuda, covering all types of ocean sciences. Gosnold was transferred to the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Florida, in October 1973, where it continued to work.

Specifications
Built: 1943 for the US Army at Kewanuee Shipbuilding Co.
Length: 99'
Beam: 21'6"
Draft: 11'
Capacity: crew -6, science - 7
Names: Explorer (F-76) 1943-1962, Gosnold

(Photo courtesty of WHOI Archives)

Lulu, 1965-1984
In March of 1965, Lulu headed to Florida, under tow, for the first test as the submersible Alvin's tender. The vessel began making regular trips with Alvin aboard in May 1965. Lulu made 119 cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Azores area, the Caribbean Sea, and in the eastern Pacific.

Lulu's last trip was in August of 1983. In September 1984, Lulu was transferred to San Diego for Navy use as tender to the submersibles Sea Cliff i Turtle, but was instead sold to private owners.

Specifications
Built: 1963-1964 in Woods Hole from two 96' Navy surplus mine sweeping pontoons by Dan Clark, Inc.
Length: 105'
Beam: 48'
Draft: 11'

(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Knorr, 1970-present
Knorr was delivered to WHOI in April 1970. R/V Knorr (AGOR-15) was named in honor of Ernest R. Knorr, a distinguished early hydographic engineer and cartographer who was appointed senior civilian and Chief Engineer Cartographer of the US Navy Hydographic office in 1860.

Knorr is an all purpose scientific vessel designed to accommodate a wide range of oceanographic tasks. Its forward and aft azimuthing propellers allow the ship to move in any direction or to maintain a fixed position in high winds and rough seas. The vessel's other unique features, like anti-roll tanks and ice strengthened bow, enable Knorr to travel the world's oceans.

In 1991 Knorr returned to WHOI after undergoing a 32 month major mid-life refit. The vessel was upgraded and refitted at the McDermott Shipyard in Amelia, Louisiana. An additional 34' was added to Knorr's length at the middle providing room for a new laboratory and machinery space. Osim toga, Knorr's twin azimuthing propulsion system was installed.

Sister ship: Melville, operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.

Specifications
Built: 1968 by Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Michigan. Designed and built under the direction of the Naval Systems Command, Supervisor of Shipbuilding, 9th Naval District
Length: 245' originally, 279' after refit
Beam: 46'
Draft: 16'

(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Alcoa Seaprobe, 1977
Alcoa Seaprobe, an all-aluminum vessel built specifically for deep ocean research and recovery, had a unique search pod enabling it to sweep the ocean floor and transmit data to the ship. The vessel could also core, drill, and sample mineral deposits down to 18,000 feet. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution used Alcoa in the 1970s to conduct tests of the ANGUS camera sled, and the Westinghouse side-scan sonar for pressure tests, and for underwater filming and photography.

Specifications
Built: 1970 by ALCOA (Aluminum Co. of America)
Length: 243'
Capacity: Crew-33, science-19

(Photo courtesty of WHOI Archives)

Oceanus, 1977 to present
Oceanus arrived in Woods Hole in November of 1975. The vessel is owned by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and operated by WHOI. She has worked extensively in the Atlantic on a variety of biological, chemical, geological, physical, and engineering cruises.

In 1994 Oceanus underwent an extensive 8 month mid-life refit at Atlantic Drydock in Jacksonville, Florida. The NSF provided a grant for the $3.5 million project to refit and upgrade the vessel's technology, equipment, and laboratories.>

Sister ships: Wecoma, operated by Oregon State University, and Endeavour, operated by the University of Rhode Island.

Specifications
Built: 1975 by Peterson Builders Inc., Sturgeon Bay, WI. Designed by John W. Gilbert Assoc., Inc., Boston for University-National Oceanographic Laboratories System (UNOLS).
Length: 177'
Beam: 33'
Draft: 17'6"
Full Speed: 14.5
Cruising Speed: 11.5
Endurance: 30 days
Capacity: crew-12, science-12

Capacity: Crew-33, science-19

(Photo by Tom Kleindinst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Atlantis, 1997-present
Atlantis replaced the Atlantis II and was named for WHOI's original research vessel. She made her first call in home port on April 1997. The new Atlantis has advanced support facilities to service and launch submersibles, such as Alvin, and a wide variety of ROVs at locations throughout the global oceans. She is one of the most sophisticated research vessels afloat, equipped with precision navigation, bottom mapping, and satellite communications systems.

Atlantis is owned by the US Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in support of the US academic ocean research community.

Specifications
Built: 1997 by Halter Marine Inc., of Moss Point, Mississippi
Length: 274'
Beam: 52.5'
Draft: 17'
Capacity: crew-23, science-36

(Photo by Tom Kleindinst, WHOI)

Tioga, 2004-present
R/V Tioga is an aluminum hulled coastal research vessel that serves ocean scientists and engineers working in the waters off the Northeastern United States and is solely owned by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This small, fast research boat was designed and outfitted for oceanographic work close to shore. Speed allows Tioga to operate in narrow weather windows, meaning researchers can get out to sea, complete their work, and make it back before approaching foul weather systems arrive. Tioga can accommodate six people for overnight trips&mdashincluding the captain and first mate&mdashand up to 10 people for day trips. The boat is equipped with water samplers, a current profiler, and an echo-sounder, used by scientists to conduct seafloor surveys. Tioga has two winches, including one with electrical wires to collect real-time data from towed underwater instruments. Buoys can be deployed using the A-frame on the stern, which is similar in size to those on WHOI&rsquos large ships.

Specifications
Built: 2004
Length: 60 feet
Beam: 17 feet
Draft: 5 feet
Capacity: crew-2 (additional required for extended trips), science-6 bunks (10 people on day trips)
(Photo by Tom Kleindinst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)


Knorr AGOR-15 - History


RV Knorr is also popularly known for her role as host to Dr. Robert Ballard and the scientific team that found RMS Titanic in 1985, after completing a classified mission to survey the remains of the ill-fated submarines Scorpion (SSN-589) and Thresher (SSN-593). Although the discovery was Knorr's greatest brush with fame, the mission was but a small part of her 44-year career, in which she traveled 1.35 million miles (the equivalent of more than two round trips to the moon) on journeys from the Arctic to the southern oceans and hundreds of places in between. Lessons learned during the decades of Knorr's service were taken into account as plans for a successor began to take shape during the 1990s.

Considering that Armstrong was in development for the better part of two decades, it might sound surprising that the research vessel is slightly shorter than her predecessor, her 40-day endurance is approximately two weeks less, and she can embark fewer scientists than RV Knorr could. Despite this, Armstrong possesses notable advantages over her predecessor such as a more advanced dynamic positioning system, greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust, and her engines also produce less than half the underwater noise that RV Knorr produced. This is particularly important because Armstrong also has the most advanced research sonar array the Navy possesses.


Knorr AGOR-15 - History

The small, rectangular, two-story brick building nestled next to the Clock Tower on Washington Avenue proudly displays an American Flag and eagerly awaits visitors who will comb through her exhibits. It is here, at the Bay City Historical Museum, that reminders of Bay City's history and origins are proudly displayed for everyone to view--from the young and innocent to the old and experienced. It is also here that we gain knowledge about the past and share with others the importance of our heritage and how it has shaped our future and community.

English 111A Students Ride Trolley to Museum

To learn more about the Bay City Historical Museum, I climb the damp red cement stairs that lead toward its double glass-plated doors. I quickly cross my arms, as if hugging myself, while the cold March wind nips at my body, causing me to shiver and quicken my steps. Once inside, warm air hits my cheeks, causing my face to flush and my eyes to moisten. As I look around I notice a gift shop to the right and a small library to the left. However, my real destination is upstairs. I proceed to a cherry-stained staircase, where I place my hand upon a smooth banister and ascend to the second floor, wondering what lies ahead. As I turn slightly to the right through the doorway, I have a choice of proceeding straight ahead or going left down the main hallway. I choose to go straight.

My boots scuff across the shiny laminate floor as I proceed down the narrow hallway. I then come to a display at the end. Standing at the end of the hallway, I notice plaques that grace the wall and tell a story of a place in time long ago. My attention is diverted away from the plaques when I peer past my reflection through the light reflective glass window to a display of a turn-of-the-century bank. A long wooden counter with vertical black bars and a carefully placed shiny silver bell at the left corner sternly sits. In the left hand corner there silently rests a safe that is slightly aged with its eroding paint and worn away edges.

I walk back to the main exhibits where I view more displays of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century nostalgia. A child's room equipped with toys and dolls appears before my eyes. Teddy bears, hairbrushes, and instruments are carefully placed about the room. The only thing missing is the children, although I can imagine the bubbles of laughter that would have resounded throughout the room. Behind me is a display of a woman's clothing and the types of materials and fabric a lady would have carefully selected to stitch herself a fancy dress to complement her figure and complexion. Delicate lace lies flatly on a shelf while a creamy ivory dress sits nonchalantly atop a mannequin
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The next display is that of late eighteenth-early nineteenth century kitchen, similar to the kind that was probably in everyone's home at one time or another. The entire kitchen is a stark white with elements of color protruding here and there. Fruits such as apples, bananas, and oranges lay on the countertop, waiting to be eaten, while art deco green glass bowls and strategically placed tins sit aside one another.

Next, I step into the large opening of the Kantzler Maritime Gallery, located in the back section of the second floor, where a large blue board with a geographical representation of Michigan is neatly hung on the wall. I step down the carpeted stairs and turn to the right, where my eyes are instantly drawn to a skillfully-assembled miniature lighthouse with illuminated windows. This lighthouse is very significant to Bay City's maritime history in that it helped guide ships to and from shore. Aged black and white photographs sit upon the wall peering back at me with neatly worded text below them to supply people like me with information. Further down sits a dark brown, weathered, hand-carved canoe, about six feet in length. I imagine that an incredible amount of work was put forth to create such a project.

Forging ahead I come to another section in the gallery that displays pictures of shipping vessels and the Bay City crews who worked on them. Ignoring the other items, I am curiously attracted to the paintings displayed upon the wall. Two massive paintings encased in wooden frames are of ships that once sailed the waters of Bay City's harbor long ago. Each delicate brush stroke reveals distinct characteristics of each vessel, showing the relationship between artist and muse.

Behind a clear plastic encasement lies an open, slightly blue-gray, weathered log book with yellowed papered scribbled with black ink, telling of a typical day onboard: "July, Speed eight knots. review recognition signal procedure, be sure you have a man present on the bridge at all times who can answer a challenge. Call the captain immediately if an incorrect challenge is given."'

In another display, a large white board labeled with all sorts of news clippings about Defoe and his ship building company yard grace the walls. Established in 1905, Defoe built ships such as super freighters for the U.S. Army, Navy, and Coast Guard more than any other yard on the Great Lakes. Also, in the late 1960's, Defoe built two oceanographic research vessels and two medium surveying vessels for the U.S. Navy. The RIV Meliville AGOR-14 and the R/V KNORR AGOR-15 were both 244.10' vessels built in 1968 and delivered between 1969 and 1970. The R/V KNORR is famous for helping locate the wreckage of the famous ship disaster Titanic.

Upon leaving the Bay City Historical Museum, I reflect on what I have learned so far. Before I visited the museum, I was clueless about Bay City's past, but now I realize just how important Bay City's history is, especially its maritime history. A lot of people may think of their community as a boring place, but if we challenge ourselves to learn more about our community and its origins and how it came to be, we just might find the story to be interesting. That is what history is--a simple story, and with museums like that of Bay City Historical Museum, we help preserve that story for those who have not heard it.


Random information on the term “ANGUS”:

R/V Knorr was a research vessel formerly owned by the U.S. Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the U.S. research community in coordination with and as a part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) fleet. On March 14, 2016, Knorr was officially transferred to the Mexican Navy and renamed Rio Tecolutla. She was replaced at Woods Hole by the RV Neil Armstrong. Knorr is best known as the ship that supported researchers on 1 September 1985 as they discovered the wreck of the RMS Titanic. R/V Knorr (AGOR-15) has traveled more than a million miles—the rough equivalent of two round trips to the Moon or forty trips around the Earth. Her sister ship is the R/V Melville.

R/V Knorr was named in honor of Ernest R. Knorr, a distinguished hydrographic engineer and cartographer who was appointed Chief Engineer Cartographer of the U.S. Navy Hydrographic office in 1860. Chief Engineer Knorr was one of the leaders of the Navy’s first systematic charting and surveying effort from 1860 to 1885. She was launched in 1968 at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company in Bay City, Michigan, Knorr was delivered to Woods Hole in 1970. For her early life, she had Voith-Schneider propellers[citation needed].

Random information on the term “KOBE”:

Kobe (神戸市?, Kōbe-shi, Japanese: [koːꜜbe]) is the sixth-largest city in Japan and is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture. It is located on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, on the north shore of Osaka Bay and about 30 km (19 mi) west of Osaka. With a population around 1.5 million, the city is part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kyoto.

The earliest written records regarding the region come from the Nihon Shoki, which describes the founding of the Ikuta Shrine by Empress Jingū in AD 201. For most of its history, the area was never a single political entity, even during the Tokugawa period, when the port was controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate. Kobe did not exist in its current form until its founding in 1889. Its name comes from “kanbe” (神戸?), an archaic title for supporters of the city’s Ikuta Shrine. Kobe became one of Japan’s 17 designated cities in 1956.

Kobe was one of the cities to open for trade with the West following the 1853 end of the policy of seclusion and has since been known as a cosmopolitan port city. While the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake diminished much of Kobe’s prominence as a port city, it remains Japan’s fourth busiest container port. Companies headquartered in Kobe include ASICS, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Kobe Steel, as well as over 100 international corporations with Asian or Japanese headquarters in the city such as Eli Lilly and Company, Procter & Gamble, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Nestlé. The city is the point of origin and namesake of Kobe beef, as well as the site of one of Japan’s most famous hot spring resorts, Arima Onsen.


Šta Knorr family records will you find?

There are 20,000 census records available for the last name Knorr. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Knorr census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 4,000 immigration records available for the last name Knorr. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 12,000 military records available for the last name Knorr. For the veterans among your Knorr ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 20,000 census records available for the last name Knorr. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Knorr census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 4,000 immigration records available for the last name Knorr. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 12,000 military records available for the last name Knorr. For the veterans among your Knorr ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Knorr’s Marketing Strategy and Interesting Reasons behind its success _________________

Product Strategy of Knorr

Initially, the brand only started with ready-to-cook soups but with emerging demand and growth opportunity it expanded its portfolio. Later with years added several products in the product mix which includes soupy noodles, cup soups, meals mixes, and many more. Considering its global audiences it has launched its product in various continental flavors, in almost all of its ranges. In India, in order to capture more attention and customer loyalty, it has launched a series of spice mixes such as Sambhar Masala, Pav Bhaji Masala etc. Knorr also trades with wraps and rolls filling such as Chinese Chow, Tawa Chatpata etc.

Pricing Strategy of Knorr

The company is under tough competition with its existing rival brands such as Maggie, Yippee etc. across the South Asian market. Because of the high competition by its peers the brand has focused on keeping the price as low as possible in order to create a mass field of difference. The 70 grams pack of Soupy Noodles comes in Rs. 15 whereas ready mix meals cost around Rs 50. A different price range has been for soup category also, where a single Cup-A-soup pack of cost around Rs. 10-15, four people serving soup costs Rs. 60. Knorr follows the penetration pricing strategy which is why the prices of the products are comparatively lower than that of its competitors.

Positioning Strategy of Knorr

After the acquisition with Unilever, Knorr is being sold across 78 different countries around the globe. Under the giant umbrella of Unilever’s FMCG section, the company distributes and delivers Knorr products by using the existing distribution channel. In India, Knorr falls under the supervision of Hindustan Unilever which has a huge network of redistribution stockiest which further supplies the product to approximately 6.3m retail outlets. The positioning strategy of the company targets to reach every possible segment of the market including an urban, rural and semi-urban segment of the society. Apart from physical distribution, the company has also made available its products through online grocery stores such as Big Basket, Amazon.in, Nature’s Basket and even Flipkart.

Promotional Strategy of Knorr

Knorr applies aggressive marketing strategies for promoting its products. With the launch of every single product, brand or improvement in the existing product, it directly reaches to the customer via all the possible platforms of promotion. These promotional platforms include TV commercials, social media campaigns and all the conventional mediums such as newspaper, billboards etc. The company also follows and has a keen interest in public relationship and sales promotion strategy. Their ad commercials usually intend to show the bond between the mother, her children, and hunger. Currently, the TV commercials face is Pankaj Bhadouria, who is the winner of MasterChef India season 1.

Knorr’s Campaign ___________________

As mentioned earlier, Knorr uses an aggressive promotional strategy. Thus, it has widely come up with new advertisements and campaigns. Let’s check out the most popular campaigns.

‘Khake ke Piyo Ya Peeke ke Khao’

This campaign was aired through TV and social media, which was launched to promote two in one benefits of Knorr Soupy Noodles. The company targeted to reach people by delivering the idea: one can have noodle as well as soup in the same bowl. It was received well by the audience especially youngsters.

‘Dishes out’

The campaign ‘Dishes Out’ was used to promote Knorr soups in chilly winters areas. It was widely promoted through billboards which were positioned near all major transportation means such as railways station, bus stands, outside of the metro station etc. This campaign targeted people looking out for something warm yet healthy.

Similarly, the Knorr Soups’ ‘ 7pm ‘ campaign was highlighted to solve the hunger pangs before dinner at 7pm! Children often get hungry in the evening demanding junk food and Knorr soups is the best alternative that a mom can use. The 7pm would remind them of their evening snack. The campaign was well received on media channels and also on print media!

The brand and company target at providing the highest quality food and beverages by using real ingredients and without preservatives. The company is more consumers oriented than profit oriented. Even after being under the pressure by its peers, the brand has successfully sustained by undertaking efficient and effective product, pricing, placing and promotional strategies.

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