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Prva borba za Bilbao, 13-14. Avgusta 1812

Prva borba za Bilbao, 13-14. Avgusta 1812



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Prva borba za Bilbao, 13-14. Avgusta 1812

U prvoj borbi za Bilbao (13.-14. Kolovoza 1812.) zajedničke su anglo-španjolske snage zauzele glavni grad Baskije, ali su je Francuzi zauzeli samo dvije sedmice kasnije.

U ljeto 1812. britanska mornarička eskadrila pod vodstvom kapetana Home Pophama djelovala je duž sjeverne obale Španije, napadajući niz izoliranih francuskih stubova. Zauzimanje Lequeitioa (21.-22. Juna 1812) i Castra Urdialesa (6-8. Jula 1812) bilo je praćeno neuspjelim napadima na Portugalete (11. jula 1812) i Guetarai, ali oni su poslužili za privlačenje francuskog istoka.

Pophamov sljedeći potez bio je napad na Santander, zapadno. To su izveli zajedno sa španjolskim trupama José Ramón Rodil Campillo, oficir regularne vojske koji je sada zapovijedao jednom od gerilskih grupa pod vodstvom Juana Díaza Porliera, i general Gabriel de Mendizabal, zapovjednik Španjolske sedme armije koji je također stigao krajem opsada. U noći između 2. i 2. avgusta francuski garnizon je izbio i pridružio se generalu Caffarelli, komandantu francuske vojske Sjevera, koji se zatim povukao nazad prema Vitoriji, gdje je očekivao napad Wellingtona.

Nakon pada Santandara, Popham i Mendizabal odlučili su napasti Bilbao, glavni grad provincije Biskaj i glavni grad u Baskiji. Mendizabel je pozvao sve svoje raspoložive trupe za napad, iako nisu sve stigle na vrijeme. Predvodio je tri bataljona (dva iz Porliera i jednu novopodignutu jedinicu) i marširao istočno od Santandera. Popham je sakupio tri bataljona iz Biskaja (pod vodstvom Mariana Renovalesa) i iskrcao ih u Lequeitiou, nekoliko milja istočno. Zatim se krenuo na zapad kako bi napao utvrđeno selo Portugalete, u mjesecu rijeke.

Trostruki napad brzo je izvukao Francuze iz pozicije. 13. avgusta zapovjednik garnizona Biblao koncentrirao je sve svoje trupe, uključujući garnizon iz Portugalete, protiv Mendizabala i Renovalesa. Kada su Britanci stigli do sela, ustanovili su da je nebranjeno i brzo su ga zauzeli. Francuski zapovjednik vjerovao je da mu prijeti opasnost da bude opkoljen, te je napustio borbu povukavši se na istok do Duranga.

Narednog dana Francuzi su se vratili, nakon što su shvatili da napadačke snage nisu bile tako jake kao što se vjerovalo. Međutim, bilo je prekasno i španjolske trupe Mendizabala i Renovalesa uspjele su ih obuzdati. Francuzi su bili prisiljeni na povlačenje, dok se više španskih trupa pojavilo u Bilbau. Mendizabal je sazvao generalnu huntu baskijskih provincija na sastanak u Bilbau, i nekoliko sedmica je izgledalo kao da će Francuzi uskoro biti istjerani iz provincije Biskaj.

Ovo se pokazalo preuranjenim. General Caffarelli uspio je podići poljsku vojsku od oko 7.000 ljudi i napredovao je prema Bilbau. Napao je 27. i 29. avgusta i uspješno natjerao Špance da se povuku. Većina španskih trupa uspješno je pobjegla, iako je Renovales doživio poraz kod Dime, nedaleko južno od Bilbaa.

Napoleonova početna stranica | Knjige o Napoleonovim ratovima | Indeks predmeta: Napoleonovi ratovi


Jacques Necker, ministar finansija 1788-90

  • 7. jun: Dan pločica u Grenoblu, prva pobuna protiv kralja.
  • 21. jul: Skupština Vizillea, skupština generalnog imanja Dauphiné.
  • 8. avgust: Kraljevska riznica je proglašena praznom, a Pariški parlament odbija da reformiše poreski sistem ili pozajmi kruni više novca. Kako bi dobila njihovu potporu fiskalnim reformama, ministar financija Brienne zakazuje 5. svibnja 1789. sastanak generalnog staleža, skupštine plemstva, svećenstva i pučana (Treći stalež), koji se nije sastajao od 1614.
  • 16. avgust: Trezor obustavlja plaćanja državnih dugova.
  • 25. augusta: Brienne podnosi ostavku na mjesto ministra finansija, a zamjenjuje je švicarski bankar Jacques Necker, popularan kod Trećeg staleža. Francuski bankari i biznismeni, koji su uvijek cijenili Neckera, pristali su pozajmiti državi 75 miliona, pod uslovom da će Generalne nekretnine imati puna ovlaštenja za reformu sistema.
  • 27. decembar: Zbog protivljenja plemića, Necker najavljuje da će se zastupljenost Trećeg staleža udvostručiti, te da će plemići i svećenici imati pravo sjediti sa Trećim staležom. [1]

Kralj otvara sastanak generalnih stanova (5. maja 1789)

Crtani film s prikazom Trećeg staleža koji nosi težinu svećenstva i plemstva (1789)

Zakletva teniskog terena (20. juna 1789), Couder

  • Januar: Opatija Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès objavljuje svoj poznati pamflet "Šta je treće imanje?" on piše "Šta je treći stalež? Sve. Šta je do sada bilo u političkom poretku? Ništa. Šta to zahtijeva da bude? Nešto."
  • 24. januara: Kralj Luj XVI saziva izbore za delegate generalnih stanova [2]
  • 27. april: Neredi u Parizu od strane radnika fabrike tapeta Réveillon u Faubourg Saint-Antoineu. U borbama s policijom poginulo je 25 radnika.
  • 2. maj: Prezentacija kralju zamjenika generalnih stanova u Versaillesu. Sveštenstvo i plemići su dočekani formalnim ceremonijama i procesijama, Treći stalež nije.
  • 5. maj: Svečano otvaranje generalnih stanova u Versaillesu.
  • 6. maj: Poslanici Trećeg staleža odbijaju da se sastanu odvojeno od ostalih stanova, zauzimaju glavnu dvoranu i pozivaju sveštenstvo i plemstvo da im se pridruže.
  • 11. maj: Plemstvo se odbija sastati sa Trećim staležom, ali svećenstvo oklijeva i obustavlja verifikaciju svojih zamjenika.
  • 20. maj: Sveštenstvo se odriče posebnih poreskih privilegija i prihvata princip fiskalne jednakosti.
  • 22. maj: Plemstvo se odriče svojih posebnih poreskih privilegija. Međutim, tri imanja se ne mogu dogovoriti oko zajedničkog programa.
  • 25. maj: Poslanici Trećeg staleža iz Pariza, odgođeni izbornim procedurama, stižu u Versailles.
  • 3. jun: Naučnik Jean Sylvain Bailly izabran je za vođu poslanika Trećeg staleža.
  • 4. jun: Smrću sedmogodišnjeg Louisa Josepha Xavier Françoisa, Dauphina od Francuske, najstarijeg sina i nasljednika Luja XVI, njegov četverogodišnji brat, Louis-Charles, vojvoda od Normandije, postaje novi Dauphin .
  • 6. jun: Poslanici plemstva odbacuju kompromisni program koji je predložio ministar finansija Jacques Necker.
  • 10. jun: Na prijedlog Sieyèsa, zastupnici Trećeg staleža odlučuju održati vlastiti sastanak i pozivaju ostale stanove da im se pridruže.
  • 13. - 14. jun: Devet poslanika sveštenstva odlučuje da se pridruži sastanku Trećeg staleža.
  • 17. jun: Na predlog Sieyésa, poslanici Trećeg staleža proglašavaju se Narodnom skupštinom. Kako bi osigurali podršku javnosti, oni odlučuju da se porezi moraju plaćati samo dok je Skupština zasjedanje.
  • 19. jun: Sa 149 prema 137 glasova, poslanici sveštenstva pridružuju se skupštini Trećeg staleža.
  • 20. jun: Po nalogu Luja XVI, sala za sastanke Trećeg staleža je zatvorena i zaključana. Na prijedlog dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, zastupnici se umjesto toga okupljaju na zatvorenom teniskom terenu, gdje se zaklinju da se neće odvajati sve dok Francuskoj ne daju novi Ustav (zakletvu teniskog terena).
  • 21. jun: Kraljevsko vijeće odbija finansijski program ministra Neckera.
  • 22. jun: Nova nacionalna skupština sastaje se u crkvi Saint Louis u Versaillesu. Prisustvuje sto pedeset poslanika sveštenstva, zajedno sa dva poslanika plemstva.
  • 23. juna: Luj XVI se lično obratio generalnom stanu (a Séance royale), gdje poništava odluke Narodne skupštine i upućuje tri staleža da se nastave sastajati odvojeno. Kralj odlazi, a slijede ga drugi i većina zastupnika Prvog staleža, ali zamjenici trećeg staleža ostaju u sali. Kad ih kraljevi ceremonijalni majstor podsjeti da je Louis poništio njihove uredbe, grof de Mirabeau, zamjenik Trećeg staleža iz Aix-a, hrabro viče da se "ovdje okupljamo voljom naroda" i da će "otići tek u tačka bajuneta ".
  • 25. juna: 48 plemića na čelu sa Lujem Filipom II, vojvodom od Orleana, pridružuje se Skupštini.
  • 27. jun: Luj XVI mijenja kurs, upućuje plemstvo i svećenstvo da se sastanu s ostalim imanjima i priznaje novu Skupštinu. U isto vrijeme, on naređuje pouzdanim vojnim jedinicama, uglavnom sastavljenim od švicarskih i njemačkih plaćenika, u Pariz.
  • 30. jun: Gomila upada u zatvor opatije Saint-Germain-des-Prés i oslobađa vojnike koji su bili zatvoreni zbog prisustva sastancima političkih klubova.
  • 6. jul: Narodna skupština formira odbor od trideset članova za pisanje novog Ustava.
  • 8. jula: Kako napetosti rastu, Comte de Mirabeau, zamjenik trećeg staleža iz Aix-a, zahtijeva da se Gardes Françaises iz vojnog domaćinstva kralja Francuske preseli iz Pariza, te da se unutar grada stvori nova civilna straža .
  • 9. jul: Narodna skupština se rekonstituiše kao Nacionalna ustavotvorna skupština.

14. jula 1789. - Opsada i predaja Bastilje Edit

Njemački vojnici kraljeve garde sukobili su se sa Gardes-Française u Parizu (12. jula 1789)

Parada glava guvernera Bastilje i rektora pariških trgovaca (14. jula 1789)

  • 11. jul: Luj XVI naglo odbacuje Neckera. Parižani odgovaraju spaljivanjem nepopularnih carinskih barijera, te upadaju i pljačkaju manastir Lazaristes. Sukobi između konjanika Régiment de Royal-Allemand Kraljeve garde i ljute gomile ispred palače Tuileries. The Gardes Françaises uvelike stanu na stranu gomile.
  • 13. jul: Narodna skupština se izjašnjava na stalnoj sjednici. U Hôtel de Ville, gradski čelnici počinju formirati upravni odbor i oružanu miliciju.
  • 14. juli: Oluja na Bastilji. Velika naoružana gomila opsjeda Bastilju, koja drži samo sedam zatvorenika, ali ima veliku zalihu baruta, što gomila želi. Nakon nekoliko sati otpora, guverner tvrđave de Launay, konačno se predaje pri izlasku, gomila ga ubija. Gomila ubija i de Flessellesa, namjesnika pariških trgovaca.
  • 15. jul: Astronom i matematičar Jean Sylvain Bailly imenovan je za gradonačelnika Pariza, a Lafayette za komandanta novoformirane Nacionalne garde.
  • 16. jul: Kralj ponovo postavlja Neckera za ministra finansija i povlači kraljevske trupe iz središta grada. Nova izabrana skupština Pariza glasa za uništenje tvrđave Bastille. Slični odbori i lokalne milicije formirani su u Lyonu, Rennesu i drugim velikim francuskim gradovima.
  • 17. jul: Kralj posjećuje Pariz, gdje ga dočekuju Hôtel de Ville by Bailly i Lafayette, a nosi trobojnu kokardu. Osjećajući ono što je pred nama, nekoliko istaknutih pripadnika plemstva, uključujući grofa od Artoisa, princa de Condéa, vojvodu od Enghiena, baruna de Breteuila, vojvodu od Brogliea, vojvodu od Polignaca i njegovu suprugu postali su prvi od val od emigranti da napuste Francusku.
  • 18. jul: Camille Desmoulins počinje s objavljivanjem 'La France libre', zahtijevajući radikalniju revoluciju i pozivajući na republiku tvrdeći da je revolucionarno nasilje opravdano.
  • 22. jul: Naoružana rulja na Place de Grève masakri Berthier de Sauvigny, intendant Pariza, i njegov tast, optužen za špekulacije sa žitom.
  • 21. jul-1. avgust: Neredi i pobune seljaka u Strazburu (21. jula), Le Mansu (23. jula), Colmaru, Alzasu i Hainautu (25. jula).
  • 28. jul: Jacques Pierre Brissot počinje objavljivanje Le Patriote français, utjecajne novine revolucionarnog pokreta poznate kao žirondinci.
  • 4. avgust: Kralj imenuje vladu reformističkih ministara oko Neckera. Skupština glasa za ukidanje privilegija i feudalnih prava plemstva.
  • 7. avgust: Objavljivanje "Zavjere otkrivene da uspava narod" Jean-Paul Marat-a, osuđujući reforme od 4. avgusta kao nedovoljne i zahtijevajući radikalniju revoluciju. Marat brzo postaje glas najburnijih sans-culottes frakcija revolucije.
  • 23. avgust: Skupština proglašava slobodu vjerskih mišljenja.
  • 24. avgust: Skupština proglašava slobodu govora.

27. avgusta 1789. - Deklaracija o pravima čovjeka i građanina Urediti

  • 27. avgust: Skupština usvaja Deklaraciju o pravima čovjeka i građana, koju je u velikoj mjeri izradio Lafayette.
  • 28. avgust: Skupština raspravlja o davanju kralju ovlaštenja da uloži veto na zakone.
  • 30. augusta: Camille Desmoulins organizira ustanak u Palais-Royalu kako bi blokirao predloženi veto za kralja i prisilio kralja da se vrati u Pariz. Ustanak propada.
  • 31. avgust: Ustavni odbor Skupštine predlaže parlament od dva doma i kraljevsko pravo veta.
  • 9. septembar: Mafija ubija gradonačelnika Troyesa.
  • 11. septembar: Narodna skupština daje kralju ovlašćenje da privremeno stavi veto na zakone na dvije zakonodavne sjednice.
  • 15. septembar: Desmoulins objavljuje Discours de la lanterne aux Parisiens, radikalni pamflet koji opravdava političko nasilje i uzdiže parišku rulju.
  • 16. septembar: prvi broj novina Jean Paul Marat, L'Ami du peuple, predlažući radikalnu društvenu i političku revoluciju.
  • 19. septembar: Izbori za novu opštinsku skupštinu u Parizu, sa tristo članova izabranih po okruzima.
  • 1. oktobar: U banket des Gardes du Corps du Roi u Versaillesu, kojem su Luj XVI, Marija-Antoaneta i Dafin prisustvovali u vrijeme deserta, kraljeva straža obukla je bijelu kraljevsku cocarde. Lažna vijest brzo stiže u Pariz da su stražari pogazili trobojnicu i izaziva bijes.

6. oktobar 1789. - Ženski marš na Versailles Edit

  • 5. oktobar: Maratove novine zahtijevaju marš u Versailles u znak protesta zbog uvrede cocarde tricolor. Hiljade žena učestvuje u maršu, a uveče im se pridružila i pariška nacionalna garda predvođena Lafajetom.
  • 6. oktobar: Nakon urednog marša, gomila žena upada u Palatu. Žene zahtijevaju da ih kralj i njegova porodica prate do Pariza, a kralj se slaže. Narodna skupština takođe odlučuje da se preseli u Pariz.
  • 10. oktobar: Skupština imenuje Lafayettea za komandanta regularne vojske u Parizu i okolini. Skupština takođe mijenja kraljevsku titulu iz "Kralj Francuske i Navare" u "Kralj Francuske". Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, ljekar, član Skupštine, predlaže novi i humaniji oblik javnog pogubljenja, koji je na kraju dobio njegovo ime, giljotina. [3]
  • 12. oktobar: Luj XVI tajno piše španskom kralju Karlu IV, žaleći se na zlostavljanje. Grof od Artoisa tajno piše Josipu II Austrijskom tražeći vojnu intervenciju u Francuskoj.
  • 19. oktobar: Narodna skupština održava svoj prvi sastanak u Parizu, u kapeli nadbiskupske rezidencije pored katedrale Notr Dam.
  • 21. oktobar: Skupština proglašava vanredno stanje kako bi spriječila buduće ustanke.
  • 2. novembar: Sabor glasa da se imovina Crkve stavi na raspolaganje naciji.
  • 9. novembar: Skupština prelazi na Salle du Manège, bivša škola jahanja u blizini palače Tuileries.
  • 28. novembar: Prvo izdanje Desmoulinovog nedeljnika Histoire des Révolutions de France i Brabant, divljački napadajući rojaliste i aristokrate.
  • Novembar: Bretonski klub rekonstituisan je u Parizu u manastiru Saint-Honore Doninikanaca, koji su u narodu bili poznati kao jakobinci, pod imenom Društvo prijatelja Ustava
  • 1. decembar: Pobuna mornara francuske mornarice u Toulonu, koji hapse admirala d'Alberta.
  • 9. decembar: Skupština odlučuje podijeliti Francusku na odjele, umjesto bivših francuskih provincija.
  • 19. decembar: Uvođenje assignat, oblik valute koji se ne zasniva na srebru, već na vrijednosti crkvene imovine koju je država oduzela.
  • 24. decembar: Skupština je odlučila da se protestanti mogu držati javnih funkcija Jevreji su i dalje isključeni.

Sastanak Narodne skupštine (4. februara 1790)

Fête de la Fédération (14. jula 1790)

  • 7. januara: Neredi u Versaillesu traže niže cijene kruha.
  • 18. januar: Marat objavljuje žestok napad na ministra finansija Neckera.
  • 22. januara: Općinska policija Pariza pokušala je uhititi Marata zbog njegovih nasilnih napada na vladu, ali ga brani gomila sans-culottes i bježi u London.
  • 13. februar: Skupština zabranjuje polaganje vjerskih zavjeta i potiskuje kontemplativne vjerske redove.
  • 23. februar: Skupština zahtijeva curés (parohijski sveštenici) u crkvama širom Francuske kako bi naglas pročitali uredbe Skupštine.
  • 28. februar: Skupština ukida uslov da vojni oficiri budu pripadnici plemstva.
  • 8. mart: Skupština odlučuje da nastavi sa institucijom ropstva u francuskim kolonijama, ali dozvoljava osnivanje kolonijalnih skupština.
  • 12. mart: Skupština odobrava prodaju imovine crkve po opštinama
  • 29. marta: Papa Pio VI osuđuje Deklaraciju o pravima čovjeka i građanina u tajnoj konzistoriji.
  • 5. april-10. jun: Niz prokatoličkih i antirevolucionarnih nereda u francuskim provincijama u Vannesu (5. aprila), Nimsu (6. aprila), Toulouseu (18. aprila), Toulonu (3. maja) i Avinjonu (jun 10) protestujuće mjere protiv crkve.
  • 17. april: Osnivanje kluba Cordeliers, koji se sastaje u nekadašnjem samostanu tog imena. Postaje jedan od najglasnijih zagovornika radikalne promjene.
  • 30. april: Neredi u Marseilleu. Tri su utvrde zauzete, a zapovjednik utvrde Saint-Jean, Chevalier de Beausset, ubijen je.
  • 12. maj: Lafayette i Jean Sylvain Bailly osnivaju Društvo 1789.
  • 15. maj: Usvojen zakon koji omogućava otkup vlastelinskih taksi.
  • 18. maj: Marat se vraća u Pariz i nastavlja sa objavljivanjem L'Ami du people.
  • 22. maj: Skupština odlučuje da sama može odlučivati ​​o pitanjima rata i mira, ali da se rat ne može objaviti bez prijedloga i odobrenja od strane kralja.
  • 30. maj: Lyon slavi revoluciju sa Fête de la Fédération. Lille održava sličan događaj 6. juna. Strasbourg 13. juna, Rouen 19. juna.
  • 3. jun: Ustanak biračkih stanovnika francuske kolonije Martinik.
  • 19. jun: Skupština ukida titule, redove i druge privilegije naslednog plemstva.
  • 26. jun: Avignon, tada pod papinom vlašću, traži pridruživanje Francuskoj. Skupština, želeći izbjeći sukob s papom Pijem VI, odgađa donošenje odluke.
  • 26. juna: Diplomati Engleske, Austrije, Pruske i Sjedinjenih Država sastaju se u Reichenbachu kako bi razgovarali o mogućoj vojnoj intervenciji protiv Francuske revolucije.
  • 12. jul: Skupština usvaja konačan tekst o statusu francuskog sveštenstva. Sveštenici gube poseban status i od njih se traži da polože zakletvu na vernost vladi.

14. jula 1790. - Fête de la Fédération Uredi

  • 14. jula: Fête de la Fédération održava se na Champ de Mars u Parizu na proslavi prve godišnjice revolucije. Događaju prisustvuju kralj i kraljica, Narodna skupština, vlada i ogromno mnoštvo. Lafayette polaže građansku zakletvu obećavajući da će "uvijek biti vjeran naciji, zakonu i kralju da s najvećom moći podrži ustav koji je donela Narodna skupština, a prihvatio kralj". Ovu zakletvu polažu njegove trupe, kao i kralj. The Fête de la Fédération posljednji je događaj koji je ujedinio sve različite frakcije u Parizu za vrijeme revolucije.
  • 23. jul: Papa piše tajno pismo Luju XVI, obećavajući da će osuditi ukidanje posebnog statusa francuskog sveštenstva od strane Skupštine.
  • 26. jul: Marat objavljuje zahtjev za hitno pogubljenje pet do šest stotina aristokrata kako bi se spasila revolucija.
  • 28. jul: Skupština odbija dopustiti austrijskim trupama da pređu francusku teritoriju kako bi ugušile ustanak u Belgiji, inspiriran Francuskom revolucijom.
  • 31. jul: Skupština odlučuje poduzeti pravne mjere protiv Marata i Camille Desmoulins zbog njihovih poziva na revolucionarno nasilje.
  • 16. avgust: Skupština uspostavlja mirovne sudije širom zemlje kako bi zamijenila tradicionalne sudove koje drže lokalni velikaši.
  • 16. avgust: Skupština poziva na ponovno uspostavljanje discipline u vojsci.
  • 31. augusta: Bitke u Nancyju između pobunjenih vojnika vojske i jedinica nacionalne garde grada, koji podržavaju Lafayette i Skupštinu.
  • 4. septembar: Necker, ministar finansija, smijenjen. Narodna skupština vodi računa o javnoj blagajni.
  • 16. septembar: Pobuna mornara francuske flote u Brestu.
  • 6. oktobar: Luj XVI piše svom rođaku, Karlu IV od Španije, kako bi izrazio neprijateljstvo prema novom statusu francuskog sveštenstva.
  • 12. oktobar: Skupština raspušta lokalnu skupštinu Saint-Dominque (sada Haiti) i ponovo potvrđuje instituciju ropstva.
  • 21. oktobar: Skupština odlučuje da će trobojnica zamijeniti bijelu zastavu i fleš-delis francuske monarhije kao amblem Francuske.
  • 4. novembar: Pobuna u francuskoj koloniji Isle de France (sada Mauricijus).
  • 25. novembar: Ustanak crnih robova u francuskoj koloniji Saint-Domingue (sada Haiti).
  • 27. novembar: Skupština odlučuje da svi članovi sveštenstva moraju položiti zakletvu naciji, zakonu i kralju. Velika većina francuskih svećenika odbija položiti zakletvu.
  • 3. decembar: Luj XVI piše pruskom kralju Fridrihu Vilijamu II tražeći vojnu intervenciju evropskih monarha kako bi obnovili njegovu vlast.
  • 27. decembar: Trideset i devet poslanika Skupštine, koji su takođe sveštenici, polažu zakletvu na vjernost vladi. Međutim, većina svećenika koji rade u Skupštini odbija položiti zakletvu.

Grof de Mirabeau (1791)

Kralj i njegova porodica prepoznati su i uhapšeni u Varennesu (21. juna 1791)

  • 1. januara: Mirabeau je izabran za predsjednika Skupštine
  • 3. januar: Sveštenicima je naređeno da polože zakletvu naciji u roku od dvadeset četiri sata. Većina službenih članova Skupštine odbija položiti zakletvu.
  • 19. februara: Mesdames, kćeri Luja XV i tetke Luja XVI, odlaze iz Francuske u egzil.
  • 24. februara: Ustavni biskupi, koji su položili zakletvu državi, zamjenjuju bivšu crkvenu hijerarhiju.
  • 28. februar: Dan bodeža. Lafayette naređuje uhićenje 400 naoružanih aristokrata koji su se okupili u palači Tuileries kako bi zaštitili kraljevsku porodicu. Oni su oslobođeni 13. marta.
  • 2. mart: Ukidanje tradicionalnih trgovačkih saveza.
  • 3. mart: Skupština nalaže da se srebrni predmeti u vlasništvu Crkve pretope i prodaju za finansiranje vlade.
  • 10. marta: Papa Pio VI osuđuje građanski ustav sveštenstva
  • 25. mart: Prekinuti diplomatski odnosi između Francuske i Vatikana.
  • 2. april: Mirabeauova smrt.
  • 3. april: Skupština predlaže pretvaranje nove crkve Sainte Geneviève, koja još nije posvećena, u Panteon. mauzolej za slavne građane Francuske. Dana 4. maja ostaci Mirabeaua prvi su postavljeni u novu Panthéon.
  • 13. aprila: Enciklika pape Pija VI osuđuje građanski ustav sveštenstva.
  • 18. april: Nacionalna garda, uprkos naređenjima Lafayette -a, blokira kraljevsku porodicu u odlasku u Château de Saint-Cloud da proslavimo Uskrs.
  • 16. maj: Na prijedlog Robespierrea, Skupština izglasava zabranu članovima trenutne Skupštine da postanu kandidati za sljedeću Skupštinu.
  • 30. maj: Skupština nalaže prenos Voltairovog pepela u Panteon.
  • 14. jun: Skupština donosi Zakon o lusterima kojim se ukidaju korporacije i zabranjuju sindikati i štrajkovi.
  • 15. jun: Skupština zabranjuje sveštenicima da nose crkvenu odeću izvan crkava.

20. - 21. juna 1791. - Kraljevska porodica bježi iz Pariza Edit

  • 20-21. Jun: Let za Varennes. U noći između 20. i 21. juna, kralj, kraljica i njihova djeca iskliznuli su iz palače Tuileries i kolima pobjegli u smjeru Montmédyja.
  • 21. - 22. juna: Kralj je priznat u Varennesu. Skupština objavljuje da je odveden protiv njegove volje i šalje tri komesara da ga vrate u Pariz.
  • 25. jun: Luj XVI se vraća u Pariz. Skupština suspenduje njegove funkcije do daljnjeg.
  • 5. jul: Car Leopold II izdaje Padovski cirkular pozivajući evropske kraljevske kuće da priteknu u pomoć Luju XVI, njegovom zetu.
  • 9. jul: Skupština tako odlučuje emigranti moraju se vratiti u Francusku u roku od dva mjeseca ili oduzeti svoju imovinu.
  • 11. jul: Volterov pepeo prebačen je u Panthéon.
  • 15. jul: Narodna skupština proglašava kralja nepovredivim i ne može mu se suditi. Luj XVI je suspendovan sa svojih dužnosti do ratifikacije novog Ustava.
  • 16. jul: Umjereniji članovi jakobinskog kluba odvajaju se i formiraju novi klub, Feuillants.
  • 17. jula: Demonstracije koje su sponzorirali jakobinci, kordelijeri i njihovi saveznici nose peticiju u kojoj se traži uklanjanje kralja Champ de Mars. Gradska vlast podiže crvenu zastavu, znak vojnog stanja i zabranjuje demonstracije. Nacionalna garda puca na gomilu, a ubijeno je pedesetak ljudi. [4]
  • 18. jul: Prateći događaje u Champ de Mars, Skupština zabranjuje poticanje na nerede, pozivajući građane da ne poštuju zakon, te pobunjeničke publikacije, usmjerene na jakobince i kordelijere. Marat se skriva, a Danton bježi u Englesku.
  • 14. avgusta: Pobuna robova počinje u Saint Domingueu (Haiti)
  • 27. kolovoza: Deklaracija Pillnitza - Proglas Fredericka Williama II iz Pruske i cara Svetog Rimskog carstva Habsburga Leopolda II, potvrđuje njihovu želju da "postave kralja Francuske u državu za jačanje temelja monarhijske vlade". Ova nejasna izjava u Francuskoj se uzima kao direktna prijetnja drugih evropskih sila da se umiješaju u Revoluciju.
  • 13. - 14. septembar: Luj XVI formalno prihvata novi Ustav.
  • 27. septembar: Skupština izjavljuje da su svi muškarci koji žive u Francuskoj, bez obzira na boju, slobodni, ali čuva ropstvo u francuskim kolonijama. Francuski Jevreji dobijaju državljanstvo.
  • 29. septembar: Skupština ograničava članstvo u Nacionalnoj gardi na građane koji plaćaju određeni nivo poreza, isključujući tako radničku klasu.
  • 30. septembar: Zadnji dan Narodne ustavotvorne skupštine. Skupština daje amnestiju svima onima koji su kažnjeni za ilegalne političke aktivnosti od 1788.
  • 1. oktobar: Prva sjednica nove nacionalne zakonodavne skupštine. Claude Pastoret, monarhist, izabran je za predsjednika skupštine.
  • 16. oktobar: Nemiri protiv revolucionarne komune ili gradske vlasti u Avinjonu. Nakon što je ubijen službenik komune, masakriraju se zatvorenici koji su držani u podrumima Papinske palače.
  • 9. novembra: Émigrés ponovo im je naređeno da se vrate u Francusku prije 1. januara 1792., pod kaznom gubitka imovine i smrtnom kaznom. Kralj Luj XVI stavio je veto na deklaraciju 11. novembra, ali traži od svoje braće da se vrate u Francusku.
  • 14. novembar: Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve izabran je za gradonačelnika Pariza, sa 6.728 glasova protiv 3.126 za Lafayette. Od 80.000 birača sa pravom glasa, 70.000 je bilo uzdržano.
  • 25. novembar: Zakonodavna skupština osniva Odbor za nadzor koji će nadzirati vladu.
  • 29. novembar: Sveštenicima se ponovo naređuje da polože zakletvu vladi ili da se smatraju osumnjičenima.
  • 3. decembar: Kralj piše tajno pismo Fredericku Williamu II od Pruske, pozivajući ga da vojno intervenira u Francuskoj "kako bi spriječio zlo koje se ovdje događa prije nego što zahvati ostale države Europe. [5]
  • 3. decembar: Braća Luja XVI (grofovi Provence i Artois) odbijaju da se vrate u Francusku, navodeći kao razlog "moralno i fizičko zatočeništvo u kojem se drži kralj". [5]
  • 14. decembar: Lafayette prima zapovjedništvo nad jednom od tri nove vojske uspostavljene za odbranu francuskih granica, Armijom Centra, sa sjedištem u Metzu. Druge dvije vojske komanduju Rochambeau (Armija Sjevera) i Nicolas Luckner (Armija Rajne).
  • 28. decembra: Skupština glasa da se pozove masovna vojska dobrovoljaca za odbranu granica Francuske,

Kralj je prisiljen nositi frigijsku kapu i nazdraviti naciji (20. juna 1792.)

Sans-Culottes zauzeti palaču Tuileries i masakrirati švicarsku gardu (10. augusta 1792.)

Francuska pobjeda nad Prusom u bitci za Valmy (29. septembra 1792)


Rat 1812: Glumci, artefakti i reprize bitki

Interes za ponovno stvaranje scena bitke i prikupljanje ratnih relikvija nije ništa novo. No, s današnjim salabracijama zvijezda raspoređenim u vodama Baltimora s#8217s, koje je bolje vrijeme za ponovnu posjetu važnoj vezi koju Maryland ima s ratom 1812.

9. juna 2012: Romaine Somerville, guverner Martin O ’Malley, Nita Schultz i Stiles Colwill miješaju se na Dvjestogodišnjoj svečanosti rata iz 1812. u Maryland Historical Society ’s. (Karen Jackson/Baltimore Sun) 9. juna 2012: Alex Beiter, Chandler Denison i Kellie Saunders prisustvuju Dvjestogodišnjoj svečanosti rata 1812. u Istorijskom društvu Marylanda. (Karen Jackson/Baltimore Sun) 8. juna 2012: Fort McHenry Park Rangers Tim Ertel (L) i Tyler Mink (R), odjeveni u replike vojničkih uniformi iz 1812. godine, prikazani su na brodu rezača Obalne straže Jamesa Rankina prije postavljanja crvene, bijele i plave boje, pozadina u luku kako bi označio mjesto gdje je Francis Scott Key napisao pjesmu koja je na kraju postala Nacionalna himna. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun)
8. lipnja 2012 .: Posada obalne straže na rezaču pozdravlja James Rankin dok je Fort McHenry Park Rangers, odjeven u rekonstruktore iz 1812. godine, ispalio pozdrav iz dva pištolja nakon postavljanja crvenog, bijelog i plavog boca u luku kako bi označio mjesto na kojem je Francis Scott Key napisao je pjesmu koja je na kraju postala Nacionalna himna. Obalna straža postavila je prvi marker 1914. godine i svake godine od 1973. (Kenneth K. Lam/The Baltimore Sun) 5. juna 2012: Straža Fort McHenry, L-R Tim Ertel, Vince Vaise i Jim Bailey pomažu u pokretanju salabracije ispunjene zvijezdama. Događaji su uključivali predstavljanje boja nacionalnog spomenika Fort McHenry & Historic Shrine, pjevanje državne himne MU1 Jack Sigmon iz američke mornarice, predstavljanje zastava iz zemalja u posjetu i dnevnu pirotehniku. (Lloyd Fox/Baltimore Sun) 1. lipnja 2012: Povijesno društvo Maryland postavlja najveći prikaz ratnih artefakata iz 1812. godine, uključujući rukopis himne Francis Scott Key, dno i sliku bombardovanja Fort McHenryja od 13. do 14. septembra 1814. od strane Alfreda J. Miller, na vrhu, da se poklopi s pokretanjem gradske proslave dvjestogodišnjice rata iz 1812. godine. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun)
1. juna 2012: Povijesno društvo Maryland postavlja najveći prikaz ratnih artefakata iz 1812. godine, uključujući rukopis himne Francis Scott Key, koji se podudara s pokretanjem gradske proslave dvjestogodišnjice rata 1812. godine. Na slici su mornaričke čaše, ca. 1812 i crtež njihove izložbe. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun) 1. lipnja 2012: Na slici je slika Rosalie Stier Calvert s djetetom, ca. 1812, who witnessed the Battle of Bladensburg from Plantation “Riversdale” near Washington D.C. The Maryland Historical Society mounts the largest display of War of 1812 related artifacts, including the Francis Scott Key’s anthem manuscript, to coincide with the launch of the city’s War of 1812 bicentennial celebration. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun) June 1, 2012: Pictured is the unique Etting Cup, ca. 1816, a signed tin reunion cup. The Maryland Historical Society mounts the largest display of War of 1812 related artifacts, including the Francis Scott Key’s anthem manuscript, to coincide with the launch of the city’s War of 1812 bicentennial celebration. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun)
June 1, 2012: Pictured is a portion of a painting of the Battle of North Point 1814 by Maryland militiaman Thomas Ruckle. The Maryland Historical Society is mounting the largest display of War of 1812 related artifacts, including the Francis Scott Key’s anthem manuscript, to coincide with the launch of the city’s War of 1812 bicentennial celebration. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun) June 1, 2012: Maryland Historical Society mounts the largest display of War of 1812 related artifacts, including the Francis Scott Key’s anthem manuscript, pictured, to coincide with the launch of the city’s War of 1812 bicentennial celebration. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun) May 22, 2012: (2nd L- R) Canadian Equerry, General Walter Natynczyk, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Canadian Defence Minister Peter MacKay participate in the 1812 presentation of a commemorative medal and banner for the 1812 Commemorative Military Muster hosted by the Government of Canada at Fort York Armoury, as part of the Royal visit to Canada to mark the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee in Toronto, Canada. (Jag Gundu/Getty Images)
May 16, 2012: Puffy clouds drift above Serenity Farm, near the Patuxent River, where once British troops gathered during the War of 1812. (Karl Merton Ferron/Baltimore Sun) May 16, 2012: Artifacts, including broken pottery, ceramics, and bottles, were discovered at Serenity Farm near the Patuxent River, in Benedict, Maryland, where once British troops gathered during the War of 1812. (Karl Merton Ferron/Baltimore Sun) May 16, 2012: A recycled pine beam that once was part of a barn built in the 1700’s, which withstood the War of 1812, is now used as part of the structure of the store at Serenity Farm, near the Patuxent River, where once British troops gathered during the War of 1812. (Karl Merton Ferron/Baltimore Sun)
May 5, 2012: Members of the Baltimore United Volunteers and other re-enacters perform marching drills for the crowd gathered on the grounds of the Lock Houe Museum in Havre de Grace for a War of 1812 re-enactment. (Matt Button/Aegis) May 5, 2012: The Lock House Museum took guests back in time as re-enactors on both American and British sides conducted demonstrations, exhibitions and drills. (Matt Button/Aegis) May 5, 2012: Re-enacters take a break after their firing drills for the crowd during a War of 1812 re-enactment at the Lock House Museum in Havre de Grace. (Matt Button/Aegis)
May 5, 2012: Wyatt Whitin admires the Amussette, or Wall gun during his visit to a War of 1812 re-enactment at the Lock House Museum in Havre de Grace. (Matt Button/Aegis) April 21, 2012: Sophomore actors from Baltimore School for the Arts, left to right Lance Strickland, 16, ‘Stephen Locke’ Avon Houghton, 15, ‘Philip York’ T’Pre Mayer, 16, ‘Rebecca Rodgers’ and Victor Parker, 15, ‘George Smith’ enjoy a light moment before their production begins at Fort McHenry. As part of the bicentennial celebration of the War of 1812 , they presented ‘Fighting for Freedom,’ three situations written by students and faculty, that ordinary residents may have experienced. (Kim Hairston/Baltimore Sun) March 11, 2012: Musica Antiqua Quartet performed War of 1812 music with period instruments and costumes, at the Hampton National Historic Site in Towson. Selections included ‘Mrs. Madison’s Minuet,’ ‘The Constellation Cotillion,’ the first edition of ‘The Star-Spangled Banner,’ militia tunes, theater pieces, patriotic marches, dance tunes, broadsides and vocal selections.
March 10, 2012: Re-enactor Ed Seufert, dressed as a early 1800’s British Royal Marine, points out the advancement of troop positions during the Battle of North Point on a map. Girl scouts from Catonsville, Arbutus, and Elkridge gathered at Catonsville United Methodist Church and participated in a day of learning about the War of 1812. (Nate Pesce/Patuxent Publishing) March 5, 2012: At Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, a ceremony was held to kick off the sale of two commemorative coins which will help fund the Bicentennial Celebration of the War of 1812 and the Star-Spangled Banner. At the podium is Congressman Dutch Ruppersberger who, along with Sen. Ben Cardin, sponsored legislation to create the coins. Seated behind the Congressman is Governor Martin O’Malley. In the foreground left is a very large model of the gold coin. The U.S. Mint will sell 100,000 gold coins and 500,000 silver coins. (Algerina Perna/Baltimore Sun) November 11, 2011: Rangers Jim Bailey (L), dressed as a Union Civil War soldier, and Tim Ertel (C), wearing the uniform of a WWI corpsman, talk as Mark Smith (R), a volunteer representing soldiers in the War of 1812 stands by. They are participants in living history for the Veteran’s Day weekend at Ft. McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. (Kim Hairston/Baltimore Sun)
October 5, 2011: Director Larry Hott on the set of ‘The War of 1812.’ (Baltimore Sun) September 26, 2011: Members of the Fort McHenry Guard, including Tim Ertel (L) and Chris Oler (R), led Maryland’s governor, Baltimore’s mayor and others along Harbor East to the premiere of the movie, ‘The War of 1812.’ (Gene Sweeney Jr./Baltimore Sun) September 10, 2011: Jodi Aryee, 7, of Baltimore helps hold the gathered replica Star-Spangled Banner Flag as visitors participate in the flag lowering ceremony during the annual Defender’s Day celebration at Fort McHenry. (Baltimore Sun)
September 9, 2011: Volunteer re-enactor Alisa Beverley of Fells Point cooks a chicken the way women did around 1812 while dressed in period clothing at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. (Steve Ruark/Baltimore Sun) September 9, 2011: Carrots sit near a lantern as re-enactors prepare dinner the way women did around 1812 at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. (Steve Ruark/Baltimore Sun) September 9, 2011: Ranger and re-enactor Genna White of Upper Marlboro lets students from Church Creek Middle School smell dried pork like that eaten around 1812 at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. (Steve Ruark/Baltimore Sun)
June 14, 2011: Natasha Fowlkes, an inmate at the Maryland Correctional Institution for Women, is a line supervisor in the Maryland Correctional Enterprises sew plant, where they produce U.S., Maryland and War of 1812 flags. Fowlkes is smoothing out a flag to fold after inspecting it. (Amy Davis/Baltimore Sun) September 10, 2010: Aaron Bradford of Sutherland, VA, leads 7th grade students from Francis Scott Key Elementary/Middle School in the musket drill. Bradford is dressed in the uniform of a 3rd Regiment US Corps of Artillery soldier. The uniform would have been used late in the War of 1812. Nearly 1,400 state school children took part in Young Defenders Day at the Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. (Kim Hairston/Baltimore Sun) August 7, 2010: Kate Morrand, conservator for the Naval History and Heritage Command, holds a piece of charred timber believed to have come from the Scorpion, a warship from the War of 1812. Archaeologists believe they have recovered parts of the Scorpion, a block sloop in the command of Joshua Barney, that was scuttled and burned as the British approached during the War of 1812. (Kim Hairston/Baltimore Sun)
June 14, 2009: With the help of students from Pascagoula HIgh School in Pascagoula, Mississippi, park rangers at Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine unfurled a replica of the flag flown at the fort during the war of 1812. The 30 ft. by 42 ft. replica is made of nylon the original was made of wool. In celebration of Flag Day, a flag program presented by The American Flag Foundation, Inc. was held in the evening at Fort McHenry for the 30th Annual National Pause for the Pledge of Allegiance. (Algerina Perna/Baltimore Sun) June 14, 2009: Park Ranger Jim Bailey, dressed as an officer of the War of 1812, salutes a replica of the flag flown during the War of 1812 at the Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine after speaking to a group of visitors on Flag Day. (Algerina Perna/Baltimore Sun) May 22, 2009: Members of the ‘Baltimore United Volunteers’ (back to front) Capt. James Dugent (Baltimore) Jennifer Dugent (Arlington Va.) and Vernon Tudor (Dundalk) present the battle flag of their unit from the War of 1812. In 2009, Towson had a dedication of the courthouse plaza and renamed it “Patriot Plaza” to honor all those who have served in the military. (Brendan Cavanaugh/P3 Imaging Inc.)
April 27, 2009: Firetrucks support a large American flag at the groundbreaking for new visitor’s center at Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. Today, more than 600,000 visitors come to Ft. McHenry each year. (Jed Kirschbaum/Baltimore Sun) August 26, 2007: Canons fire during the � Overture’ during the summer concert by the United States Army Field Band and Soldiers’ Chorus on Devers Lawn at Fort Meade. (Annie Agnone/Patuxent Publishing) September 3, 2006: As part of the Defenders’ Day celebration, re-enactors will stage a re-enactment of the 1814 Battle of North Point where American troops slowed the advance of about 5000 British troops, which three weeks before had burned Washington. Jean Chriest (cq), of Dundalk, who is dressed in period clothing of a lady in the 1800s, watches the re-enactors, foreground, assemble for the flag ceremony. Chriest’s husband is an re-enactor with Aisquith’s Sharp Shooters 1812 Rifle Company. (Kenneth K. Lam/Baltimore Sun)
August 31, 2006: Visitors to The National Museum of American History got a glimpse of the cleaned Star Spangled Banner, housed in the glass enclosed room, that flew over Ft. McHenry during the War of 1812. (Doug Kapustin/Baltimore Sun) September 7, 2004: C.J. Burton and Joe Marcellino hang an 1800 replica of the American flag on the Senator Theatre in preparation for the premiere of the History Channel and Comcast movie, ‘First Invasion, War of 1812.’ Mayor Martin O’Malley, who appears in the movie, will be honored with an award at Ryan’s Daughter prior to the premiere. (Karen Jackson/Baltimore Sun) September 7, 2004: ŠThe History Channel’s documentary, ‘First Invasion: The War of 1812’ premiered at the Senator Theater in 2004. Mayor Martin O’Malley (R) marched with reenactors from a reception hosted by the Patriots of Fort McHenry at Ryan’s Daughter, to the Senator Theatre for the movie. (Gene Sweeney Jr/ Baltimore Sun)
August 26, 2004: (L-R) Vince Vaise, a Park Service Ranger at Ft. McHenry, gets assistance with his uniform from Josh Hart, Silver Spring. Vaise is the captain of the Ft. McHenry Guard Program. He and a band of volunteers dressed in 1812-era uniforms and interpret history surrounding the Battle of Baltimore for visitors to the fort. Hart is a corporal in the unit. (Kim Hairston/Baltimore Sun) May 3, 2003: The Susquehanna Museum in Havre de Grace held its main event, a re-enactment of the 1813’s British attack on the town during the War of 1812. Rachel Miller, 7 months, waits for her mom Kelly Miller to feed her. Kelly married a man who re-enacts, and now she and their daughter are in re-enactments as well. (Chiaki Kawajiri/Baltimore Sun) September 8, 2000: To commemorate the defense of Baltimore at Fort McHenry, in late August and September, 1814, Baltimore Fencibles fire their muskets, in salute of the passing Constellation. It was the tradition for warships leaving and entering the harbor to fire their cannon, with artillery fire returned from the fort. The men representing the Fencibles, an independent company of artillerists called upon to defend the fort, are, L to R: Ed Cannon, Jim Kobe, Monty Phair, and Chuck Ruth. (Amy Davis/ Baltimore Sun)

Related Reading

Ships begin to arrive for Sailabration
Candus Thomson / The Baltimore Sun

A welcoming wind and warm sunshine greeted the first ships arriving at Baltimore’s Inner Harbor this morning for the weeklong commemoration of the War of 1812.

The Canadian vessel Iroquois was first under the Key Bridge and offered a 21-gun Sailabration salute as spectators at Fort McHenry applauded. The fort’s cannon crew responded with its own salute.

The 40 vessels from a dozen nations will be berthed at the Inner Harbor, Fells Point and North Locust Point. Most will be open to the public.


Battle of Mons

On August 23, 1914, in their first confrontation on European soil since the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, four divisions of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), commanded by Sir John French, struggle with the German 1st Army over the 60-foot-wide Mons Canal in Belgium, near the French frontier.

The Battle of Mons was the last of four �ttles of the Frontiers” that took place over as many days on the Western Front between Allied and German forces in the opening month of World War I. The first three𠅊t Lorraine, Ardennes and Charleroi—involved French forces under the central command of General Joseph Joffre. French’s BEF had been originally slated to assist the French 5th Army, commanded by General Charles Lanrezac, in their attempt to break through the center of the advancing German lines. A delayed start and poor relations between French and Lanrezac, however, meant that the 5th Army and the BEF would fight separate battles against the advancing Germans, at Charleroi and Mons.

At nine o𠆜lock on the morning of August 23, German guns opened fire on the British positions at Mons, focusing on the northernmost point of a salient formed by a loop in the canal. Though Von Kluck and the 1st Army enjoyed two-to-one numerical superiority, they did not make effective use of it, and the British regiments at the salient admirably withstood six hours of shelling and infantry assault. Lanrezac’s decision, late in the day, to order a general retreat of the French 5th Army at Charleroi left the BEF in danger of envelopment by the Germans, and a decision was made to withdraw the troops as soon as possible. By the time the battle ended after nine hours, some 35,000 British soldiers had been involved, with a total of 1,600 casualties.

Thus the first day of British combat in World War I ended in retreat and bitter disappointment, although the steadfastness of the BEF had delayed Von Kluck’s advance by one day. Within weeks of the battle, however, British public imagination elevated Mons to mythic status and those who had died to heroes, until the British defeat came to seem more like a victory in retrospect. The most prevalent legend was that of the 𠇊ngel of Mons,” who had appeared on the battlefield carrying a flaming sword and faced the advancing Germans, impeding their progress. In reality, victory in the four Battles of the Frontiers imbued the Germans with a tremendous sense of confidence, as they continued their relentless advance through Belgium into northern France𠅎ventually controlling the industrial power of both nations, including coal, iron ore, factories, railroads and rivers𠅊nd the Allies scrambled to ready their defenses.


Kentuckians may have saved America

(Public domain/ Wikimedia Commons)

Their savage fighting style might have given the Kentucky Militia a bad reputation, but when the US Military needed to get tough, they called in Kentucky to get the job done. That happened both in the Battle of the River Thames in Ontario and the Battle of New Orleans, the latter being the war’s final battle. The Kentuckians with their long rifles took care of it well and good, and the war was over, but not without casualties. About 64 percent of the Americans killed in that war were from Kentucky.

According to history, the War of 1812 was a draw. However, if it hadn’t been for the Kentuckians saving the day in New Orleans, the British might have taken it over. And if New Orleans had become a British colony, the rest of America might have eventually been taken back over by the British as well. It would have certainly changed history, that’s for sure.

MIGHTY HISTORY

Barbarossa – the biggest invasion in history

Eighty years ago this year, the German Nazis mounted the greatest invasion in history. Napoleon had invaded Russia in 1812 with an army of 685,000 men. Hitler did so in 1941 with more than five times that number.

The Russians, taken by surprise, were outnumbered, outclassed, and outgeneralled. They almost lost Moscow. They almost certainly would have lost it but for vast distance, poor roads, and Hitler’s prioritisation of the conquest of the Ukraine.

In the event, the Germans came within 30 miles of the Russian capital before winter shut down the offensive. Russian losses had been astronomical: five million by December 1941.

Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Russia, evolved from General Marcks’ plan of August 1940, which prioritised the destruction of the bulk of the Red Army in Belorussia (modern Belarus) and the capture of Moscow. This plan was heavily amended in successive studies, with Hitler downgrading the importance of taking Moscow in favour of capturing Leningrad (now St Petersburg) and the Ukraine. As finalised, the objectives of the three army groups were:

• Army Group North was to advance from East Prussia through the Baltic States and join with the Finns to take Leningrad.

• Army Group Centre’s initial operations from its concentration areas around Warsaw were intended to clear the traditional invasion route to Moscow as far as Smolensk, before swinging north to support the attack on Leningrad. After the city was taken, the advance on Moscow was to be resumed.

• Army Group South, including Romanian and Hungarian divisions, was tasked with taking the rich agricultural lands of the Ukraine and clearing the Black Sea coast.

The overall aim was to trap and destroy the bulk of the Red Army in a series of encirclements in western Russia, before finally securing a line from Archangel to Astrakhan.

The invasion’s chances of success depended on the 19 Panzer divisions concentrated in four Panzergruppen, which also incorporated the 14 motorised divisions. These were to form the cutting edge of the German offensive and had the daunting task of cutting through the massive forces that the Red Army could deploy in European Russia, which totalled perhaps 170 divisions, including up to 60 tank divisions and at least 13 motorised divisions.

Most of these units were deployed close to the frontier. The accepted explanation for this has been Stalin’s obsession with securing his newly conquered territories. German wartime claims that they invaded to pre-empt a Russian attack have almost always been dismissed as crude propaganda, but this view has been challenged as new material has emerged from Soviet archives.

Despite ultimate failure, the German military achievement was extraordinary, especially when set against the Soviet Union’s massive military lead as late as 1936. But whereas the Nazis had remilitarised with ruthless determination in the years following, Stalin had turned on and devastated his own army.

The great purges of the late 1930s – a counter-revolutionary terror by a paranoid bureaucratic dictator – destroyed the bulk of the Red Army officer corps, including its most brilliant leaders, notably Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who had been in the vanguard of new interwar theories of armoured warfare.

Power passed to ageing reactionaries and lickspittles like Marshal Budenny, who prioritised cavalry over tanks. The terror paralysed initiative and independence at every level of command. The Red Army was wholly incapable of responding effectively to the demands of the kind of modern, mobile, fast-changing ‘deep’ battle that the Wehrmacht imposed on it.

The Nazi dictatorship embraced a military culture in which senior officers set general objectives and allocated forces but left combat commanders to make the tactical decisions. The Stalinist dictatorship, by contrast, was medieval in its crudity and this brought it perilously close to disaster in the context of modern industrialised warfare.

The implications of the Soviet collapse in 1941 were huge. It meant the Nazi empire extended from the Atlantic to the gates of Moscow, with control over continental resources of manpower, food supplies, raw materials, and industrial capacity. It meant that four years of gruelling attritional warfare would be necessary to destroy it. It meant that tens of millions would die in the process.

Our guide to this most momentous of military campaigns is David Porter. He first explores the shifting balance of political and military power in the interwar years. Then, he analyses the key factors that determined the outcome of Operation Barbarossa between June and December 1941.

This is an extract from a special feature on Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Russia, in the latest issue of Military History Matters. Read the full article in the magazine, which you can subscribe to here, or here via an online subscription at The Past website.


1775 - Present

Below is a listing of America's MAJOR wars and conflicts and the known casualty figures for each. Casualties are for United States and Confederate military dead and wounded only.

Unknown U.S. soldier's grave at Normandy

Sources for updated 2003-2011 Iraq War casualties: Iraq Coalition Casualty Count --The best website I have found thus far to monitor and track Coalition casualties in this war.

The Defense Department updates their casualty page frequently. It is at: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf * Non-battle deaths not known for these wars.

**In-Theater means the deaths occurred in or near the area of combat operations. Example: If a helicopter carrying 45 soldiers in Vietnam crashes into a mountain due to bad weather, they are non-combat, in-theater deaths. If a helicopter crashes in Vietnam due to enemy action, they are combat deaths. If a helicopter in the United States crashes into a mountain during the Vietnam War, they are non-combat, non-theater deaths.

***Some controversy exists over the total number of deaths from the Korean War. For many years after the war, the official death toll stood around 54,000. Recently, the U.S. government changed the totals to the numbers above. Apparently, the non-theater deaths had been incorrectly added to the total, thereby inflating the number of "combat" deaths. Nearly 8,000 American military personnel are listed as "Missing in Action" (MIA) in Korea. They are not included in the death totals, though by now, they should all be considered dead.

****The numbers of Vietnam dead changes periodically as more remains are found in Southeast Asia and are identified. Approximately 2,500 service personnel were listed as "Missing in Action" (MIA) after the war.

*****Operation Enduring Freedom involves combat operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan (as of May 25, 2004) as well as anti-terrorist "training" missions in the Philippines, Yemen, and the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. The figures above reflect information supplied by the Department of Defense. The non-combat deaths include fatalities in airplane and helicopter crashes, industrial accidents, accidental shootings and at least three fatalities caused by friendly fire. Ten of the casualties in the Philippines were from a helicopter crash, while one soldier was killed in action when a bomb exploded near a Filipino military base in Zamboanga, Philippines.

OIR Footnote: OPERATION INHERENT RESOLVE includes casualties that occurred in Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the Mediterranean Sea east of 25 Longitude, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea.

Links and Sources for American War Casualties

America's Wars --From the Veteran's Administration

America's Wars and Casualties --Includes information on when the last veterans from each war died.

Coalition Casualties --Website tracking Coalition casualties in the 2003 Iraq War.

SFC Mark Wayne Jackson --Memorial web page for U.S. Special Forces soldier killed in the Philippines in 2002.

The Final Roll Call: Afghanistan War Casualyt Database --Database of American casualties from the Afghanistan War.

The Final Roll Call: Iraq War Casualty Database- -Database of American casualties from the Iraq War.

Defence Casualty Analysis System -Casualty data on Operation Inherent Resolve (anti-IS operations) Please cite this source when appropriate:


Battle with HMS Guerriere

USS Ustav, under the command of Captain Isaac Hull, sailed from Boston on August 2, 1812 and steered for the blustery waters southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia. After two weeks of daily gun drills in preparation for combat, Hull and his crew sighted the British frigate HMS Guerriere, under the command of Captain James Richard Dacres, on the afternoon of August 19, 1812.

As Guerriere closed to within a mile of Ustav, the British hoisted their colors and released a broadside, but the cannonballs fell short. The crew asked Hull for permission to return fire, but he refused so as not to waste the first broadside. Soon, however, Ustav slid alongside her opponent and Hull gave command to fire. The battle commenced. Ustav’s thick hull, composed of white oak planking and live oak frames, proved resilient to enemy cannonballs. During the engagement, an American sailor was heard exclaiming, “Huzza! Her sides are made of iron! See where the shot fell out!” Boarding parties were summoned as the ships came together, and Lieutenant William Sharp Bush, shot while attempting to board Guerriere, became the first United States Marine Corps officer to be killed in battle. After intense combat, the severely damaged Guerriere that was forced to surrender.

The next morning, Hull made the difficult decision to scuttle Guerriere. Ustav sailed for Boston and arrived on August 30. News of Ustav‘s victory quickly spread through town and throngs of cheering Bostonians greeted Hull and his crew. A militia company escorted Hull to a reception at the Exchange Coffee House and more dinners, presentations and awards followed in the ensuing weeks, months, and years. USS Ustav, for her impressive strength in battle, earned the nicknamed “Old Ironsides.”


National Independence in the Revolution and War of 1812

bombardment Sept. 13-14, 1814, and in Greenmount Cemetery his brother-in-law Christopher Hughes, 1786 – 1884, Secretary to the Commissioners at Ghent who brought the first news of peace to America at the close of the War of 1812
Here also within the Howard vault from 1843 to 1866 rested the remains of
1780 – Francis Scott Key – 1843
Author of the National Anthem
---------------
Erected by the National Star Spangled Banner Centennial Commission
September 1914

Erected 1914 by National Star Spangled Banner Centennial Commission.

Teme i serije. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Cemeteries & Burial Sites &bull War of 1812 &bull War, US Revolutionary. In addition, it is included in the Former U.S. Presidents: #01 George Washington, and the Signers of the Declaration of Independence series lists. A significant historical month for this entry is September 1914.

Location. 39° 17.297′ N, 76° 37.64′ W. Marker is in University of Maryland in Baltimore, Maryland. Marker is on West Redwood Street, on the right when traveling east. Marker is on the wall to the left of the entrance to Old Saint Paul s Cemetery. Dodirnite za kartu. Marker is at or near this postal address: 866 W Redwood St, Baltimore MD 21201, United States of America. Dodirnite za upute.

Ostali markeri u blizini. Najmanje 8 drugih markera nalazi se na pješačkoj udaljenosti od ovog markera. Brig. General Lewis A. Armistead (a few steps from this


ExecutedToday.com

Who was SHOT for Desertion, on Fort Independence, Feb. 18
having been four times Pardoned, but having last Deserted his Post, was condemned to die.

The thoughts of death to every mind,
Most sad reflection’s [sic] brings
But when man’s life is seek’d for crimes,
Then conscience gives its stings.

No cheering hope attends the soul,
Which with black guilt is stain’d
The waves of trouble o’er it roll,
And seldom peace is gain’d,

Avaj! that man should treasure woe,
And bring upon his head,
The curse of heaven, the curse of man.
To strike his comforts dead.

Ah! how the bosom of a wife,
Must throb with anxious care,
When once the object of her love,
Is caught in guilt’s dire snare.

His children raise their little hands,
Compassion to implore
But oh! the father whom they love
Shall never see them more.

Condemn’d for crimes his life to pay,
The fatal hour draws nigh
Stern justice heard no widow’s moans,
Nor heeds the orphan’s cry.

His comrads [sic] silent stand around,
And heave the mournful sigh,
Their bosoms heave with mingled grief,
No eye from tears is dry.

And now the solemn dirge begins,
They march towards the spot
Where he receives his crimes reward,
And meets his dreadful lot.

For him, perhaps a mother sighs,
And hopes relief to come
He’ll never bless her longing eyes,
But hear the muffled drum.

And now the holy man of God,
To Heaven addresses prayer
And bids the poor unhappy man,
For his sad doom prepare.

And now the solemn drum rebounds.
His last funereal hymn,
Again the trumpet slowly sounds,
Each eye with grief is dim.

Advancing to the fatal spot,
Still sadder flows the strain
Ah! now the dreaded scene is o’er,
The corps returns again.

See, see him welt’ring in his blood,
His spirit now has fled,
His life has paid the fatal debt,
He’s number’d with the dead.

Learn, then, ye who for Freedom fight,
To stand firm by your post,
To vindicate your country’s Right,
Nor let your fame be lost.

O! let poor CLEMENT’S [sic] awful fate,
A warning be to all,
Remember he who duty slights,
Will meet a dreadful fall.


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