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DC -3 postaje komercijalni uspjeh - historija

DC -3 postaje komercijalni uspjeh - historija


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Delta Dc-3

Uvođenje usluga na DC-3 označilo je punoljetstvo putničke avio industrije. Dvadeset i jedan putnik mogao je udobno sjediti u avionu. Svi veliki komercijalni zrakoplovi potekli su s DC-3, a krajem 1990. godine još ih je bilo u službi u svijetu.


Douglas Aircraft je napravio DC-3 na zahtjev TWA-e. TWA -in rival je koristio avione Boeing 247 za putničke usluge, a Boeing neće prodati TWA -u dok ne ispuni narudžbe za United. 1933. Douglas je dizajnirao DC-1 nakon čega je uslijedio DC-2. Douglas je tada bio uvjeren da napravi izmjene u DC-2 kako bi to mogao biti avion za spavanje- DST koji je označavao Douglas Sleeper Transport prvi put je letio 17. decembra 1935. Imao je kabinu široku 92 inča i držati ili 14 ležajeva za spavanje ili 21 sjedište, postalo je DC-3.

Proizvedeno je 607 civilnih verzija DC-3, a izgrađeno je i 10.048 vojnih verzija C-47 i C-53. Na kraju rata, mnogi vojni avioni pretvoreni su u civilne avione, čime su osigurali flotu koja je bila početna okosnica značajno rastućeg svijeta civilnog zrakoplovstva nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. DC -3 se pokazao toliko svestranim i pouzdanim da su mnogi od njih još letjeli 1990 -ih


DC -3 postaje komercijalni uspjeh - historija

Do kasnih 1920 -ih, mnogi ljudi (širom svijeta) su leteli. Avio kompanije su osnovane posvuda. United Air Lines, Transcontinental and Western Airlines (TWA) i American Airlines svi su imali velike operacije u Sjedinjenim Državama. Većina avioprijevoznika upravljala je trimotorima, poput Fokker F-10 i Ford AT. Ali standard tih dana bila je tehnologija Prvog svjetskog rata, avioni izgrađeni oko drvenog okvira. Leteli su polako i sporo, a održavanje je bilo muka. Katastrofa se dogodila kada je tih dana slavni (američki) fudbalski trener Knute Rockne poginuo u sudaru TWA Fokker F-10.
Sve velike aviokompanije krenule su u potragu za sigurnijim i lakšim za održavanje avionima, a Douglas Aircraft Corporation je odgovorila da su smislili avion koji će evoluirati u DC-3, "avion koji je promijenio svijet".
Douglas Commercial Type One, zvani DC-1, nastao je kao odgovor na probleme održavanja koje su imale aviokompanije, koje su bile obavezne pratiti raspored održavanja koji je opisao Biro za zračnu trgovinu (preteča sadašnjeg FAA-a). Boeing je proizveo model 247, koji je učinio isto, ali United Air Lines je naručio 60, a Boeing nije imao kapacitet za proizvodnju i za druge. TWA je htjela i moderan avion, sa istim naprednim specifičnostima (u početku je propisao avion s tri motora) i otišla je u Douglas.
Douglas je proizveo DC-1 i pojavio se u Santa Monici u Kaliforniji 23. juna 1933. Jedna razlika sa Boeingom 247 bila je odmah jasna: putnici su mogli hodati uspravno u kabini!
TWA je od Douglasa zatražila proizvodnju aviona koji će moći poletjeti s bilo koje TWA destinacije nakon jednog kvara na motoru. Možda nije tako čudan zahtjev, s obzirom na početni zahtjev za avion s tri motora i nepouzdanost motora tih dana. Ali Douglas je proizveo DC-1 sa samo 2 motora, što je s njegovim performansama nakon kvara motora pri polijetanju? Ali oni su to uspjeli i to je dokazano probnim letom na jednom motoru između Albuquerquea u Novom Meksiku (najviša tačka na TWA ruti) i Winslowa u Arizoni. Veličanstven podvig.
TWA je isporučila DC-1 u decembru 1933. godine i platila račun za 125.000 usd (prototip je Douglasa koštao 807.000 dolara za proizvodnju). TWA je pokazala svoje povjerenje i naručila 20 "poboljšanih DC-1" (kasnije preimenovanih DC-2).
U međuvremenu je američka vojska pokazala interes i za dizajn, tražili su moderan transport tereta/trupa.
Zapravo, DC-1 su koristili TWA i Douglas za postavljanje različitih rekorda u brzini, uključujući jedan trans-kontinentalni rekord od 3.107 milja sa prosječnom brzinom od preko 272 km / h. Ovaj "putnički avion" letio je oko borbenih aviona tih dana!

DC-2 je bio nešto duži od DC-1, dobar za ukupno 14 putnika.
Prvobitno korišteni motori bili su Wright SGR-1820-13 Cyclones. Bili su dobri za 875 KS pri punom polijetanju. Osim TWA-e, DC-2 je naručila i američka mornarica (5 transporta osoblja, označenih kao R2D-1, 3 za mornaricu i 2 za marince) i zračni korpus američke vojske (XC-32, a kada je počeo Drugi svjetski rat, impresionirala (sastavila) 24 DC-2 i označila ih C-32A).
Američkoj vojsci je također bio potreban transport tereta, pa je pod ojačan, izvađeno je sve plišano sjedalo i namještaj, a velika vrata su izrezana na stražnjoj strani trupa za utovar tereta. Ovaj model je dobio oznaku C-33 i 18 je proizvedeno.
Američka vojska je takođe letela sa 2 C-34, u osnovi isto kao i XC-32.
C-39 bio je vrh linije u vojnim varijantama DC-2 i bio je nešto između DC-2 i onoga što je trebalo postati DC-3. Imao je veće okomite i vodoravne repne površine (rješavajući problem nestabilnosti u dizajnu DC-1/DC-2). Sastav središnjeg krila/postolja motora i podvozje također su bili DC-3 dizajna. Imao je veći karavan i pokretali su ga Wright R-1820-55 Cyclone motori (975 KS). Isporuke su započele 1939. godine, a 35 je izgrađeno za USAAF. Izgrađene su uz DC-3, ali USAAF nije bio zainteresiran za veći DC-3. sve dok Japanci nisu napali Pearl Harbor i svi su se popeli na DC-3!

Prvobitno je DC-3 bio dizajniran kao luksuzni avion za spavanje, koji se bavio većim udaljenostima i dužim letovima koje su ljudi sada željeli putovati. DC-2 nije bio dovoljno širok da primi udoban ležaj. Kombinacijom ležajeva i sjedala dizajniran je DC-3-DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport).

Potpuno novi DC-3 izbačen je iz tvornice.

Fotografija ljubaznošću i kopijom Eric Birkeland.

American Airlines (pokretačka snaga dizajna DC-3) uveo ga je u službu u neprekidnom prijevozu New York-Chicago "American Eagle" u junu 1936. godine i to je odmah postigao uspjeh! Odmah su uslijedile naredbe drugih američkih i inozemnih avioprijevoznika. Putovanje avionom u SAD -u od obale do obale smanjeno je na samo 15 sati!
Velika promjena bila je u tome što su prije operateri ovisili o ugovorima o pošti kako bi zaradili na svojim rutama, a sada su uz DC-3 aviokompanije postale neovisne o američkim ugovorima o pošti jer je ekonomija aviona rezultirala profitom. Cijena DC-3 bila je u rasponu od 82.000 do 110.000 dolara i kao logično proširenje DC-2 nije uključivala revolucionarnu tehnologiju, već je pravi napredak bila ekonomija.
DC-3 postao je standardni avion u svijetu i postavio američku zrakoplovnu industriju na vodeću poziciju.
Prvi let je obavljen 17. decembra 1935. godine i do 1937. godine proizvodnja je počela sa punom knjigom narudžbi, proizvedeno je samo u decembru 37 primjeraka.
Do trenutka uključivanja SAD-a u Drugi svjetski rat u prosincu 1941., proizvedeno je ukupno 507 DST/DC-3 (od kojih je 434 isporučeno komercijalnim avioprijevoznicima). Mnoge od njih vojska je sastavila za ratne napore.
Na inicijativu United Air Linesa, koji je imao veze s Pratt & Whitney, proizveden je DC-3A. Predstavljao je snažnije pogonske jedinice P & W R-1830 Twin Wasp. Ovo je postala konačna verzija DC-3 za civilne i vojne operatore. DC-3A je počeo sa upotrebom UAL-a 30. juna 1937. godine, a i sa UAL-om je od početka pokazao profit.

Braniff Airlines je u kolovozu 1939. slijedio narudžbu za 4 DC-3 s 21 sjedištem. Pan American Grace Airways (Panagra) u Južnoj Americi bio je rani kupac, Panair do Brasil je slijedio kada su se riješili svojih letećih brodova Sikorsky S.42 i zamijenio ih DC-3. Mnogi drugi operateri su ih slijedili.
Do 1938. godine DC-3 je nosio 95 posto svih poslova komercijalnih avioprijevoznika u SAD-u i bio je u upotrebi sa 30 stranih avioprijevoznika širom svijeta.
KLM (holandska "Koninklijke Luchtvaartmaatschappij voor Nederland en Kolonien" pod vizionarskim vodstvom svog prvog izvršnog direktora dr. Alberta Plesmana) postavio je tempo u Evropi. Godine 1936. KLM je poslao početnu narudžbu za 11 DC-3, a slijedilo je još 13. Zamijenio je DC-2 na rutama za Daleki istok.
Drugi rani Douglas operateri u Evropi bili su Swissair i Air France (sa DC-2 i DC-3), Aktiebolaget Aerotransport iz Švedske, Sabena iz Belgije i LOT Polish Airlines. Douglas je izgradio DC-3 za Evropu i poslao ih preko Atlantika sa Fokkerom u Holandiji koji ih je sastavio i izvršio isporuku prema ugovoru.
Za mnoge vojne varijante, pogledajte moju stranicu o C-47 Skytrain.

Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata stotine i stotine aerodroma moglo bi se koristiti za postavljanje zračnog sistema, koristeći ogromnu količinu ratnih viškova transporta koja je postala dostupna. C-47/DC-3 je bio lako prilagodljiv za sve vrste operacija i dostupan u izdašnoj količini. Cijene rabljenog DC-3 kretale su se od 8.000 do 15.000 dolara. Naravno, mnogi su odbačeni i ponekad oduzeti (npr. Od strane kineskih zračnih snaga).
Kompanija Douglas Aircraft Company je na tržište plasirala 21 bivši vojni C-47, koji nije isporučen. Oni su bili konfigurirani prema prijeratnim standardima avioprijevoznika sa 21 putničkim sjedištem. Veliki automobilski krov zamijenjen je zračnim stepenicama koje se spuštaju na šarke. Ovo su bili posljednji izgrađeni DC-3, ukupno 10.665! Posljednji je bio cn12276, isporučen u Sabenu kao OO-AWH 21. marta 1947. Srušio se u gustoj magli prilikom slijetanja na londonski Heathrow 2. marta 1948. godine.

I zašto su Britanci dali ime DC-3 Dakota ?? Ian Nel je dao objašnjenje: Douglas Aircraft Company Transport Aircraft = DACoTA, dakle Dakota !

Hiljade vojnih transportera C-47 pretvoreno je po cijelom svijetu, u različitim konfiguracijama, prikladnim za taj zadatak. Tražena su mnoga poboljšanja, uključujući verziju DC-3 sa četiri motora (Douglasov prijedlog, koji se nije ostvario). Komplet "Maximiser" dizajnirao je AiResearch, što je rezultiralo povećanjem brzine od 20 km / h i nekoliko drugih prednosti.
Jedan program modifikacija koji je značajno poboljšao DC-3 bio je Douglas DC-3S (Super DC-3). Ali to je već druga priča i bit će objavljena na ovoj web stranici na drugoj stranici.
Za sada postoji još stotine C-47/DC-3, pohranjenih, očuvanih (ponekad čak i sposobnih za plovidbu) ili zapravo još uvijek zarađujući na komercijalnoj osnovi. A ako će ikada biti uzemljen, to neće biti zato što je postao neprikladan za obavljanje posla, već zbog nedostupnosti sto-oktanskog goriva, troškova goriva, nedostatka rezervnih dijelova i slično. Ali za sada još ne vidim kraj reda (na sreću!).

Početkom 1950-ih KLM je pokrenuo dodatnu kampanju zajedno sa SPAR supermarketima (u Holandiji). Kampanja je nosila naslov "Za putovanja: KLM - za domaćicu: SPAR". Ovo je jedna slika te kampanje.
Fotografija prikazuje prizor na aerodromu u Amsterdamu Schiphol i opuštena atmosfera ljudi koji ispraćaju putnike ili samo gledaju avione koji dolaze i odlaze, daleko je od sigurnosne paranoje koju moramo trpjeti ovih dana (anno 2007)!

Moje kratko vreme sa Bowmanom van Andersona, SC, leteo sam sa ATL -a do CLT -a, CAE -a i RDU -a za UPS Blue Label. Uglavnom sam letio N3BA, ali sam dobio i vrijeme u N4BA (kasnije preimenovan u N305SF), N18255, N12BA, a N230D kasnije u N19BA. Jake Bowman je zaista bio stara škola i očekivao je da ćete obaviti posao, bez obzira na sve, ako znate na šta mislim. Iako je utovar bio lakši, let je bio isti. Ponosan sam što sam morao biti odvojen od stare Gooney Bird i doživio da pričam o tome.
Kao napomenu, moj tata je upravljao avionima C-47 u USAF-u i umalo umro pokušavajući izvući zupčanik iz N3433H za uspomenu. 33H je bio parkiran na parceli nedaleko od aerodroma Memphis, TN na kojem smo živjeli. Nedostajala su mu krila, ali je stajao na opremi. On je forsirao iglu i zupčanik se srušio s njim u bunar! Prijatelj koji je bio s njim pozvao je vatrogasnu službu aerodroma da ga spasi. Ne znam kako su to postigli, ali znam da je bio jako zabrinut zbog pada aviona koji ga je slomio. Bio je prilično posramljen zbog nesreće, ali ga vlasnici, Meridan Air Cargo, nisu optužili za bilo kakvo krivično djelo, koji su ga natjerali da potpiše izjavu da ih neće tužiti.

Zasluge:
Douglas Propliners DC-1-DC-7, Arthur Pearcy, Airlife (1995). ISBN 185310261X. Odlična knjiga, preporuka!.
C-47 Skytrain, u akciji autor Larry Davis za Squadron/Signal Publications (avion br. 149), ISBN 0-89747-329-0.


Da biste mi poslali e -poruku, kliknite na sliku i napišite tačnu adresu kao što je dolje navedeno
(zamijenite -AT- simbolom @).

Žao nam je zbog neugodnosti, ali to je zato što je neželjena pošta sve više problem.

Douglas DC-3

The DC-3 je dvomotorni avion na elisni pogon koji je razvila Douglas Aircraft Company. Postao je jedan od najpoznatijih i najuspješnijih aviona u istoriji vazduhoplovstva.

Douglas DC-1

The Douglas DC-1 bio je prvi model poznate serije komercijalnih transportnih aviona DC.

Oznaka & quotDC & quot označava & quotDouglas Commercial & quot.

DC-1 je imao plosnati trup, suženo krilo, uvlačivi stajni trap i dva radijalna motora Wright sa 690 KS koji su pokretali propelere promjenjivog koraka. U njemu je bilo smešteno 12 putnika.

Proizveden je samo jedan DC-1, koji je prvi put poletio u julu 1933. Ali postao je osnova za dizajn DC-2 i DC-3.

Douglas DC-2

Novi DC-2 je bio sličnog oblika kao DC-1, ali je imao snažnije motore, bio je brži i imao je veći domet. Dodatnih 2 stope dužine omogućilo je još jedan red sjedala, povećavajući kapacitet putnika sa 12 na 14. Prvi put je poletio u maju 1934.

Istezanje dužine aviona promijenilo je njegovo težište, pa se krilo moralo pomaknuti, stvarajući novi transport. Douglasovi inženjeri pregledali su promjene i odlučili nazvati novi avion Douglas Commercial 2 ili DC-2.

Veličina DC-2 omogućila je posadi i putnicima da stoje uspravno dok prolaze kroz kabinu. Putnici koji su se ukrcavali i izlazili na rampama gurnuti do zadnjeg dijela trupa.

Osim uspjeha s komercijalnim avioprijevoznicima, izgrađeno je i nekoliko vojnih varijanti DC-2, uključujući C-32, C-33, C-39, C-41 i Navy R2D1.

DC-3 razvoj

Projektiranje je započelo 1934. godine na onome što će postati DC-3, na insistiranje C.R. Smitha, predsjednika American Airlinesa. Smith je želio dva nova aviona-duži DC-2 koji će prevoziti više dnevnih putnika, i drugi sa željezničkim ležajevima za prijevoz putnika.

Sve do razvoja DC-3, avioni nisu imali dovoljno putničkih kapaciteta da dozvole avioprevoznicima da budu profitabilni samo prevozeći putnike. Bilo je potrebno imati vladine ugovore o zračnoj pošti kako bi se nadoknadio manjak. Saradnja između American Airlines-a i Douglas Aircraft Company pokazala se neprocjenjivom u dizajnu čuvenog Douglas DC-3.


United Airlines DC-3 & quotMainliner & quot

Prvi DC-3 izgrađen je Douglas Sleeper Transport (DST), ležaj sa 14 kreveta, aviokompanije poznate i kao Skysleepers. Avion je mogao primiti 14 putnika preko noći.

The DC-3 dnevni avion, koji je postao najpopularniji od DC-3, bio je konfiguriran u konfiguraciji od 21 sjedišta. Uključena je i kuhinja postavljena za potpunu hranu, uključujući topla jela poslužena na porculanskim tanjirima i srebrni pribor u obliku profila aviona.

DC-3 je bio brz, nudio je veći domet u odnosu na konkurentske modele, bio je pouzdaniji i prevozio je putnike u većoj udobnosti. U godinama prije Drugog svjetskog rata, DC-3 je bio pionir u mnogim zračnim putevima. Uspio je preći kontinentalni dio SAD -a od New Yorka do Los Angelesa za 18 sati i sa samo 3 zaustavljanja.

Prvi DC-3 & quotFlagship & quot je isporučen American Airlinesu u junu 1936. godine, a dva mjeseca kasnije prvi standardni DC-3 za 21 putnika. U novembru 1936. United Airlines postao je drugi korisnik DC-3, lansirajući svog & quotMainliner & quot serija. Eastern Airlines je bio još jedan rani kupac, sa svojom "velikom srebrnom flotom".

DC-3 varijante

Do 1941. stari zračni korpus transformiran je u Vojno zrakoplovstvo, a odabrao je modificiranu verziju DC-3, C-47 Skytrain, da postane njegov standardni transportni avion.

Kao avion za opskrbu, C-47 je mogao prevoziti do 6000 funti tereta. Mogao je držati i potpuno sastavljeni džip ili top od 37 mm. Kao transport trupa, prevozio je 28 vojnika u punoj borbenoj opremi. Kao medicinski avion, mogao je primiti 14 pacijenata sa nosilima i tri medicinske sestre.


C-47 Skytrain & quotTo je sve Brother & quot

Proizvedeno je sedam osnovnih verzija, a zrakoplov je dobio najmanje 22 oznake, uključujući topovnjaču AC-47D, avion za elektroničko izviđanje EC-47, avion za ocjenjivanje protuzračnih sistema EC-47Q i C-53 Skytrooper verzija za transport trupa. C-53 nije imao pojačani teretni pod, velika teretna vrata i pričvršćivanje osnovnog C-47.

Verzija mornarice bila je poznata kao R4D.

Takođe su ga naširoko koristili prijateljski saveznici u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Avion u savezničkim snagama bio je poznat kao Dakota, koje koriste Kraljevsko ratno vazduhoplovstvo, Kraljevsko australijsko vazduhoplovstvo, Kraljevsko kanadsko vazduhoplovstvo, Kraljevsko vazduhoplovstvo Novog Zelanda i Južnoafričko vazduhoplovstvo.

The Lisunov Li-2, izvorno označena kao PS-84, bila je licencno izgrađena sovjetska verzija Douglas DC-3. Ukupno je proizvedeno preko 4.900 aviona svih varijanti Li-2 između 1940. i 1954. Nekoliko aviokompanija, uključujući Aeroflot, letelo je u varijanti.

Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata, oružane snage mnogih zemalja koristile su C-47 i modifikovane DC-3 za transport trupa, tereta i ranjenika.

Vjerojatno je njegova najutjecajnija uloga u vojnom zrakoplovstvu, međutim, letela "Grba" iz Indije u Kinu. Stručnost stečena letenjem "Grba" kasnije će se koristiti 1948 Berlin Airlift, u kojoj bi C-47 imao glavnu ulogu.

C-47 je takođe zaslužio neformalni nadimak Gooney Bird u evropskom pozorištu operacija.

Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata Douglas je avioprijevoznicima ponudio novi model: DC-3S ili "Super DC-3", koji je bio 39 duži od originalnog DC-3. Prevozio je do 30 putnika, a imao je i povećanu brzinu za nadmetanje s novijim avionima.

Douglas je preuredio stotinu zrakoplova C-47J i ugradio nova krila, novi, viši vertikalni rep s modificiranim stajnim trapom i snažnije motore. Ušli su u službu američke mornarice pod oznakom C-117D.

Ukupna proizvodnja DC-3 i svih njegovih vojnih varijanti iznosila je 16.079 aviona.

Douglas DC-3 i C-47 Uporedno poređenje

Vojni C-47 razlikovao se od komercijalnog zrakoplovstva DC-3 po brojnim modifikacijama koje su uključivale opremanje vratima za teret, ojačan pod, skraćeni repni konus za okove za vuču jedrilica i astrodom na krovu kabine (vidi usporedbu ispod ).


Preživjeli avioni DC-3

Danas mnogi DC-3 ostaju u funkciji privatnih aviona. Mnogi drugi preživjeli avioni C-47 obnovljeni su i izloženi su na statičkom prikazu širom svijeta.

Ostali su održavani u zračnom stanju i mogu se vidjeti na zračnim putovanjima i aeromitingima. Najstariji preživjeli DC-3 je N133D, šesti Douglas Sleeper Transport izgrađen 1936.

Zbog svoje pouzdanosti i robusnosti, mnogi tvrde da je "jedina zamjena za DC-3 drugi DC-3".


Postati legenda svjetskog rata

S početkom Drugog svjetskog rata posljednji civilni DC-3 izgrađeni su početkom 1943. Većina je primljena u vojnu službu, a C-47 (ili Mornarički R4D) počeo je izlaziti iz tvornice kompanije Long Beach u velikom broju. Razlikovao se od DC-3 na mnogo načina, uključujući dodatak vrata za teret i ojačani pod, skraćeni repni konus za okove za vuču jedrilica i dodatak za dizanje. Godine 1944., Armijski zračni korpus pretvorio je DC-3 u jedrilicu (XCG-17), i znatno je nadmašio jedrilice koje su na Dan D vukli C-47. C-47 su služili u svakom pozorištu.

Veliki broj C-47 oslobođen je za upotrebu nakon rata, ali aviokompanije su brzo usvojile veće, brže DC-4 i DC-6 za glavne rute. Manje regionalne aviokompanije, poput North Central-a, željno su hvatale DC-3 koje su rasprodale velike aviokompanije, dok je višak C-47 postao armada teretnih teretnih vozila, gradeći reputaciju aviona da može prenijeti gotovo sve što vam može stati kroz vrata.

Douglas je krajem 1940-ih napravio duži, snažniji i brži DC-3S ili "Super DC-3", naišavši na mali uspjeh u prodaji avioprevoznika iako su ga mornarica i marinci prihvatili kao R4D-8/ C-117D.

Ali zaista, osnovna konfiguracija DC-3/C-47 bila je toliko dobra da ju je trebalo malo poboljšati. Njegova dva Pratt & amp Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp 14-cilindrična radijalna motora proizvode svaki po 1200 KS, pružajući potisak dovoljan za podizanje 20 putnika i prtljaga ili tereta od 6000 funti. Krstareći brzinom od 160 do 180 milja na sat, DC-3 može letjeti oko 1600 milja, sletjeti na manje od 3.000 stopa i ponovo poletjeti za manje od 1.000 stopa. Zbog svoje male brzine rukovanja i žilavosti avion je izašao za bezbroj poslova, uključujući vojne specijalne operacije.

To je uključivalo povratak u rat. Kao odgovor na pojačane napade Vijetnama na ruralne ispostave Južnog Vijetnama u Vijetnamu 1963. godine, američke zračne komande počele su pomagati u odbrani malih sela noću koristeći svoje transportne avione C-47 da lete u krugovima i bacaju svjetlosne rakete, izlažući napadače odbrambene trupe. Praksa je inspirirala ideju o opremanju C-47 vatrenom snagom i na kraju zračnim snagama pod nazivom Project Gunship I.

Vazduhoplovstvo je modifikovalo nekoliko C-47 postavljanjem tri minimune General Electric od 7,62 mm za gađanje kroz dva otvora na zadnjem prozoru i bočnim vratima za teret, sve sa leve strane aviona. U lijevi prozor kokpita postavljen je nišan. Obilazeći metu na 3000 stopa i 140 km / h, modifikovani "AC-47" mogao bi u tri sekunde da metne metak u svako kvadratno dvorište mete veličine fudbalskog terena.

Još jedan C-47, koji se u Vijetnamu koristio kao avion za psihološko ratovanje sa letjelicom i opremljen zvučnicima, nezvanično se zvao "Usrani bombarder".

Kapetan Ron W. Terry, stručnjak za borbu protiv pobunjeničkih snaga Vazdušnih snaga, vodio je tim iz 4. eskadrile zrakoplovnih komandi koja je izvršila prve misije AC-47 u decembru 1964. Oni su bili prvi od mnogih između kraja 1964. i početka 1969. godine, tokom kojih je više od 6.000 zaselaka i vatrogasnih baza došlo je pod zaštitni pokrov AC-47. Nijedan nije pao dok je avion bio iznad glave. Terry se vratio u Sjedinjene Države 1965. sa sobom donio informacije koje bi mogle dovesti do razvoja AC-130 Hercules.


Početak mlaznog doba - 1952

Sljedeći veliki napredak u dizajnu aviona bio je uvođenje mlaznog motora. Rad na razvoju mlaznih motora počeo je 1930 -ih, a Prvi operativni mlazni avion bio je njemački Heinkel He 178 1939, a zatim i Messerschmitt Me 262, koji je služio vojni rok u Njemačkoj od 1947. A u Velikoj Britaniji, Boeing je 1947. predstavio mlazni B-47 za vojnu upotrebu.

Prvi putnički mlazni avion bila je de Havilland kometa, koja je ušla u službu 1952. Iako je označio značajan iskorak u avijaciji, ovaj rani mlazni avion imao je niz ozbiljnih problema. Najvažniji su problemi sa trupom, prozorima i pritiskom. Tek je četvrta iteracija, Comet 4, riješila probleme i povećala prodaju. No, do tada su drugi dizajneri aviona naučili iz njegovih grešaka i ponudili konkurentne alternative.

Boeing 707

Bilo ih je nekoliko nasljednici i konkurenti komete, uključujući DC-8, Vickers VC-10, Tupolev Tu-104 i Boeing 707. Sve su to bili zanimljivi avioni na svoj način, ali 707 se ističe kao najuspješniji.

Boeing je nadogradio svoj prethodni vojni uspjeh sa 707. Koristio je iste turboreaktivne motore Pratt & amp Whitney kao i B-52 Stratofortress, a njegov originalni dizajn trebao je udvostručiti se kao vojni avion-tanker. Prvi put je poletio u decembru 1957. godine i ostao u proizvodnji do 1978. godine, sa 856 izgrađenih i isporučenih avioprevoznicima.

Iako to nije bio prvi komercijalni mlazni avion, bio je prvi vrlo uspješan i često se pripisuje kao početak mlaznog doba. Takođe je uspostavio Boeing kao dominantnog civilnog proizvođača, sa serijom 7 ࡭ koja se nastavlja, naravno, do danas.

Boeing je ugradio mnoge elementi dizajna na osnovu problema sa ranijim mlaznim avionima i na osnovu povratnih informacija kupaca. Ovo je uključivalo:

  • Širi trup, koji omogućava pet jednakih sedišta i bolji teret tereta.
  • Premještanje motora u podkrilne mahune smatralo se sigurnijim u slučaju požara.
  • Promjene u dizajnu zaklopki i jačanju trupa.

Prilagođavanje tržištu - 737 i A320

Od 1950 -ih došlo je do manje temeljnih promjena u dizajnu aviona. Mlazni motori su ostali, ali su poboljšani u snazi ​​i efikasnosti, a tehnologija kabine i kokpita je na sličan način poboljšana, ali se i dalje temelji na istim dizajnom i konceptima.

Boeingova evolucija do serije 737 to dobro pokazuje. Nakon uspjeha sa modelima 707 i 727, dizajnirao je novi avion koji će pobijediti konkurenciju i osvojiti kupce. Zrakoplov je lansiran 1967. godine i ponudio je nekoliko dizajnerskih razlika od konkurencije:

  • Dva motora umesto tri ili četiri. Ovo se svidjelo korisnicima koji žele smanjiti troškove.
  • Motori montirani ispod krila nude lakši pristup i omogućavaju širu kabinu.
  • Širi trup koji nudi šest sjedala i rukovanje standardnim teretnim kontejnerima.

737 je ostao s nama od 1967. godine, krećući se kroz mnoge varijante. Svaki od ovih ponudio je nadogradnje kako bi zadovoljio preferencije i zahtjeve aviokompanija. To uključuje, na primjer, opcije kao što su modeli kombiniranih tereta i prilagodbe za slijetanje šljunka, te sve veći fokus na novu tehnologiju motora i poboljšanja efikasnosti.

Ali osnovni dizajn, struktura trupa i dizajn krila, na primjer, ostali su uglavnom isti. Zašto mijenjati ono što već radi, ako umjesto toga možete poboljšati?

Boeing 737 bio je najprodavaniji avion do sada, sa 10.580 isporučenih aviona u svih 737 porodica (prema podacima Boeinga od jula 2020.).

I Airbus je slijedio sličan model sa svojom porodicom A320. Od lansiranja 1987. godine, Airbus je ponudio nekoliko varijanti različitih veličina i evoluirao ih kako bi pružio poboljšanja tehnologije i efikasnosti.

Možda je počeo kasnije od Boeinga, ali je postigao i ogroman uspjeh. Porodica A320 sada nadmašuje Boeing 737 po broju naručenih aviona.


Kako je pošta napravila komercijalnu avijaciju

15. svibnja 1918. prvi službeni let američke zračne pošte poletio je s Polo Fielda u Washingtonu, DC. Isti modeli aviona polijetali su s trkališta Bustleton, Pennsylvania i Belmont Park u New Yorku. Nova usluga trebala je saobraćati između Washington DC -a, Philadelphije i New Yorka jednom dnevno, od ponedjeljka do subote. Ubrzo je usluga prerasla u rutu od New Yorka preko planina Allegheny do Chicaga, Illinois. Kasnije je dodana ruta od Chicaga preko Iowe, Nebraske, Wyominga i Nevade do San Francisca u Kaliforniji. Zračna pošta kojom je upravljala pošta koristila je tijekom svog postojanja nekoliko tipova aviona, od drvenih dvokrilaca do svih metalnih monoplana.

Curtiss JN-4D

Prvi avion koji je koristila služba zračne pošte bila je modifikacija Curtiss JN-4D, poznatijeg kao "Jenny". Ovaj drveni dvokrilni avion bio je i prvi avion za mnoge vojne i civilne pilote i jedan od prvih masovno proizvedenih aviona. Iako je bio uspješan za vojnu upotrebu, morao se izmijeniti za poštu. Prednje sjedište zamijenjeno je pretincem za poštu i dodan je veći motor Hispano-Suiza za veći domet. Brod je dobio oznaku JN-4H. Jennies su voljeli i mrzili i mogla bi biti noćna mora za let. Jedan je pilot primijetio: „Najbolje je ne pregledavati ovaj brod. Ako to učinite, nikada nećete ući u to. ” 1

Službom zračne pošte prvobitno su upravljali vojni piloti, koji su bili upoznati sa Jenny iz njene upotrebe kao trenera. Major Reuben Flote, zadužen za prve letove, dobio je šest Jenny, 2 i nadgledao je njihovu konverziju iz JN-4D u JN-4H. Koristili su ih, najprije vojni piloti, a zatim 12. avgusta 1918. piloti Poštanskog odjela, koji su ih nastavili koristiti do 1921.

Standard JR-1B

Kada je Odjel pošte preuzeo dužnost u kolovozu 1918. godine, već su naručili šest aviona Standard J koji su preinačeni u standardne avione pošte JR-1B, što ih je učinilo prvim avionima dizajniranim za zračnu poštu. Iako su se koristili samo kratko vrijeme, pokazali su se pouzdanima zbog kratkog boravka. Standardni JR-1B mogao je izdržati 180 lbs. pošte i leteći najvećom brzinom od 95 km / h. 3 Poštanski službenici koji su sada gledali na relaciji New York - Chicago već su tražili avione s većim dometom.

Curtisov model R-4LM koji prima rutinsko održavanje, 1919.
Ljubaznošću Nacionalne arhive vazduha i svemira

Curtiss R-4LM

Odeljenje pošte takođe je koristilo Curtiss R-4LM u prvoj godini rada. Flota R-4LM imala je šest aviona jakih i poput Standarda JR-1B, koji se koristio relativno kratko. Curtiss R-4LM je bila modifikovana verzija Curtiss modela R, sa prednjim kokpitom pretvorenim u teretni prostor. R-4LM se pokazao prilično sposobnim i mogao je nositi 400 kilograma. pošte maksimalnom brzinom od 95 km / h. Sva tri ova rana aviona uskoro će biti zamijenjena onim koji je postao najdugovječniji avion u službi zračne pošte, deHavilland DH-4B.

DeHavilland DH-4

DeHavilland DH-4 proizveden u Daytonu (s izmjenama i promjenom imena u DH-4B) postao bi zrakoplov koji je izgradio službu zračne pošte, s preko 100 aviona u upotrebi. Avion je vojska prvo dala Pošti kao ratni višak. DH-4 je bio uspješan vojni avion, ali kako je pošta otkrila nakon nekoliko letova, bilo mu je potrebno nekoliko izmjena prije nego što je postao uspješan avion za zračnu poštu. Kao avion za zračnu poštu, DH-4 je imao mnogo inherentnih problema, uključujući slab okvir, lošu tkaninu krila i stajni trap koji je bio previše krhak za njegovu novu težinu prenošenja pošte. 4 Avion je poboljšan čvršćim, jačim trupom, pomicanjem rezervoara za gorivo prema naprijed radi ravnoteže i prebacivanjem pilotskog sjedišta sprijeda prema natrag.

Promjene su imale mnoge prednosti, od kojih nije najmanje značajna stopa preživljavanja sudara (piloti više nisu bili zarobljeni u sudarima između motora i eksplozivnih spremnika plina ispred i stotine kilograma zapaljivog papira u poštanskim vrećama straga). Smrtonosna nesreća DH-4 rezultirala je pet smrtnih slučajeva 1920. godine, 5 što joj je dalo nadimak "Plameni kovčeg". 6 Vrlo promijenjen avion nazvan je DH-4B. DH-4B može izdržati 500 lbs. pošte i prelete čak 350 milja. DH-4B je također imao produženu ispušnu cijev koja je zadržavala dim s lica pilota. Piloti su voljeli DH-4B zbog svoje pouzdanosti i kontrole.

Od svog početka služba zračne pošte trasirala je trag u nepoznato, jedan od ljudi zaduženih za njeno funkcioniranje bio je drugi pomoćnik generala pošte, general Otto Prager. To accomplish this Prager needed bigger and better planes. By the winter of 1919 he was desperate to show Congress that the service could operate on a regular basis between the nation’s two commercial centers – New York and Chicago. If he could not prove that his planes were faster than trains between the two cities, Praeger risked Congressional disapproval, and the end of their willingness to finance the service. Unfortunately, Praeger’s search for faster planes led him to purchase some of the worst planes the service would use. While fast, the Martin MB-1, Twin-DH, and Junkers JL-6, as used by the airmail service were deadly mistakes.

Martin MB-1 Bomber

At first, Prager thought the answer might be in another military plane. The Martin MB-1 Bomber was well thought of by both army and civilian aviators. As used by the Post Office Department it was designated the Martin mail plane. The Martin was chosen for its massively larger carrying capacity of 1,500 lbs. of mail. The plane also had a superior range of 490 miles compared to deHavilland’s 350 miles. The plane was costly at $31,000 per plane in 1919. The cost was too much for the Post Office Department and as popular as it might be, Praeger just could not afford it. It also may not have helped that mechanic Neal Montis was killed and pilot J.P. Harris severely injured in a Martin as the plane’s motor stopped on takeoff, the plane crashing into the field in Cleveland.

Twin-DH

Prager was convinced that the popular DH-4Bs could be modified and improved. The modified planes were known as the J-2 or Twin-DH. The Twin-DH was a DH-4B with two Liberty 400 hp motors, one mounted on each wing. The modified deHavilland was radically cheaper, at $7,000. 7 The modifications allowed the Twin-DH to hold more mail, doubling both speed and range. But it was a failure. Introduced early 1920, the Twin-DH planes could only be flown for short distances before excessive vibration problems led to snapped wings and forced landings. 8 Pilot Kenneth Stewart was killed while flying the Twin-DH. That and other crashes, fortunately not fatal, led to its retirement in February 1921. In his enthusiasm for the new plane, Praeger had ordered twenty DH-4B planes turned into Twin-DHs. He was forced to ground the remaining planes and ordered them converted back into DH-4Bs.

A Junkers-Larsen JL-6 in a wintery field ready for test flights, 1920.
Courtesy of the United States Postal Service

Junkers-Larsen JL-6

Praeger’s third selection was a modification of the Junker F-13, an all-metal single wing aircraft successful in Europe. The plane was brought to the US by John Larson Aircraft and produced under a new name, the Junkers-Larsen JL-6. Praeger ordered eight planes for $200,000 in 1920. 9 The JL-6 used a 185 hp BMW engine, held 1,500 lbs. of mail, and flew at a speed of 100 mph. What seemed like a find would prove to be one of the biggest mistakes in the life of the airmail service. From the start the plane was plagued with problems. The airmail service’s first pilot, Max Miller, noted the plane’s excessive vibration in flight and stated that the plane was very slow. 10 The plane also suffered in test flights, with nine forced landings, four due to leaking fuel lines. 11 Despite these problems, Prager was desperate to get the plane in to service in time for the planned transcontinental routes.

One JL-6 plane crashed near Toledo, Ohio. The pilot survived with severe burns. On September 1, 1920, Miller and airmail mechanic, Gustav Reirson, were killed when their JL-6 caught fire in mid-air and crashed. The plane suffered a known fuel leak problem. 12 After that crash the remaining JL-6 planes were temporarily grounded, but returned to use the following February. Almost immediately Praeger regretted his error. On February 9, 1921, pilots Hiram Rowe, William M. Carroll and mechanic R.B. Hill were flying a JL-6 airplane when it caught fire in midair and exploded upon crashing at Lacrosse, Wisconsin. All three men were killed before help could reach them. At last the JL-6 planes were permanently grounded. No known American Junker-Larson JL-6s exist today, the rest were either scrapped or lost in a warehouse fire.

Douglas M-4 painted in Western Air Express colors sits on runway in 1940 for reenactment of Western’s 1926 air flights.
National Postal Museum

Douglas M Family

The next plane purchased by the Post Office Department was the Douglas M-1. As aging DH-4Bs became more expensive to maintain, the airmail service called on airplane manufactures in 1925 for bids on a new plane. The winner was the Douglas Aircraft Company with their Douglas M-1. The plane was superior to the DH-4B as it could fly faster and carry twice as much mail. The plane was put into service in 1926. The plane was successful enough that modified versions followed - the Douglas M-2, M-3, and M-4. The Post Office ordered forty M-4s, ten M-3s, and one M-2.

The planes were the last ones ordered by the Post Office Department. The Air Mail, or “Kelly Act” of 1925 signaled the end of the government controlled airmail service. 13 It paved the way for the growth of commercial airlines and planes that would carry not just mail, but also passengers. The Douglas planes were used by the Post Office until private contractors began taking over in 1926 and 1927. Many of the Douglas mail planes were sold to private mail carriers such as National Air Transport (NAT) and Western Air Express.

The commercial airmail routes were designated by number and known as Commercial Airmail (CAM) Routes. The first five CAM routes were contracted in 1925 to Colonial Air Transport, Inc. (Boston and New York) Robertson Aircraft Corp. (Chicago and St. Louis) National Air Transport, Inc. (Chicago and Dallas) Western Air Express, Inc. (Salt Lake City and Los Angeles) and Walter T. Varney (Elko, Nevada, and Pasco, Washington). Contracted airmail service proceeded slowly over the next two years. The Post Office retained control of the transcontinental New York – San Francisco route, making its last flight on that route on September 9, 1927.

The new companies hired some of the government pilots to fly the routes and purchased many of the government planes. But as the companies looked to expand their routes and add passengers, they began ordering new aircraft, sparking a growth in the nation’s aircraft industry.

Curtiss Carrier Pigeon sits in the snow ready for a night flight in winter of 1926.
National Postal Museum

Curtiss Carrier Pigeon

The Curtiss Carrier Pigeon was designed specifically for airmail service. It was one of the first aircraft built with night flying in mind. 14 Ten Pigeons were purchased by National Air Transport (NAT). The Carrier Pigeon was slower than the Douglas M-2 but capable of carrying the same amount of mail. It was used on NAT’s nighttime CAM routes. The plane helped NAT succeed on their CAM 3 route beginning on May 12, 1926. 15 The Carrier Pigeon was used again by NAT to open their second route, CAM 17 in September 1927 between New York and Chicago. 16 The Carrier Pigeon was retired in 1929 and replaced with faster Curtiss models.

A Ford 5-AT sits on an airfield runway with its cargo door open, taking mail from a waiting mail truck. The large plane had three motors and a single wing across its top.
National Postal Museum

Ford 5-AT

The Ford 2-AT was an iconic plane of the interwar period in airmail history. In 1924 Henry Ford announced that his Ford Motor Company would enter the airplane business. Ford had purchased Stout Metal Air Plane Co. and with their lead engineers produced the Ford 2-AT, an all metal monoplane. The plane utilized elements from earlier planes (such as the infamous Junkers JL-6) to produce its successful design. The plane was nicknamed the “Tin Goose” by the newspapers for its metal corrugated skin. 17 The 2-AT could carry as much as 1280 lbs. of mail and fit six passengers comfortably. 18 The 2-AT was mainly used by Ford for their two CAM routes, CAM 6 (Detroit and Dearborn, Michigan to Cleveland, Ohio), and CAM 7 (Detroit and Dearborn to Chicago). They were used on these routes from February 16, 1926 until July 1928 when Ford sold the routes to Stout Air Company. The 2-AT was replaced by its bigger brothers the Ford 4-AT and 5-AT. The Ford 4-AT, introduced in 1926, was based on the 2-AT but with the addition of two motors placed on the wings, giving it the distinctive nickname “Tri-motor.” The plane was a commercial success. The Tri-motor could carry 1725 lbs. of mail and 11 passengers. The 4-AT had the advantage of over 900 hp thanks to its three Wright J-6 Motors. 19 The plane was used by several airlines, including Trans World Airlines, Texas Air Transport, American Airlines, United, Ford’s own airline, and Pan American World Airways. It was one of the first planes to be commonly across the airline industry.

A Waco 9 at National Air and Space Museum storage at the Paul E. Garber facilities in 1972.
Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum

Waco 9

The Waco 9 put Waco Aircraft Company on the map with its large production run of 276 planes. It was favored by barnstormers and for general purpose flying. 20 The Waco 9 was a slow plane, considered underpowered with a 90 hp Curtiss OX-5 motor, and known to roll over on its back very easily. 21 Despite these problems the plane sold well and led to later models such as the Waco 10. The plane had a range of 375 miles and could carry 385 lbs. of mail. Clifford Bell used three Waco 9s on his CAM 11 route (Cleveland, Ohio to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The Waco 9s were flown as late as 1934.

Swallow OX-5

The Swallow OX-5 biplane, also known as the “New Swallow,” was first introduced in 1924 by the Swallow Airplane Manufacturing Company. The plane was small, with a 90 hp Curtiss OX-5 motor, could carry only 360 lbs. of mail, and had a range of 500 miles. 22 The plane was used extensively by Walter T. Varney for Varney Air Lines. His company used six Swallows on CAM 5 (Elko, Nevada and Pasco, Washington). The Swallows began flying the route on April 6, 1926 and were used until it was acquired by United Airlines. 23

A Pitcairn PA-5 marked as belonging to Eastern Air Transport, 1927.
Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum

Pitcairn PA-5 Mail Wing

The Pitcairn PA-5 Mail Wing was the first of the Mail Wing series. The plane was used by the Post Office at the end of their operations in 1927. Private contractors operating some of the new CAM routes purchased some of the planes, including Texas Air Transport (TAT) for CAM 21 (Dallas and Galveston, Texas), and CAM 22 (Dallas and San Antonio, Texas). The Pitcairn Company also ran its own mail routes and used eight PA-5s on CAM 19 and 25. 24 The PA-5 was also used by Eastern Airlines after they acquired Pitcairn’s CAM routes in 1930. Eastern retired the planes in 1934. A few PA-5s were used by NAT on CAM routes 3 and 17. As its name suggest, the Pitcairn PA-5 Mail Wing was built as a mail plane. It could hold 500 lbs. of mail, which was less than some of its competitors at the time. It could reach a speed of 130 mph. The plane would lead to later Pitcairn models such as the Pitcairn PA-7 Mail Wing.

Boeing Model 40

The Boeing Model 40 was constructed as a mail plane in 1925, intended to replace the Post Office deHavillands. It was used on Boeing’s CAM 18 (Chicago, Illinois and San Francisco, California). Boeing Air Transport also used the next plane in the series, Model 40A, on CAM 18 between 1927 and 1934. 25 The Model 40A had a 525 hp single Pratt and Whitley “Hornet” motor and could carry 800 lbs. of mail and passengers for 535 miles on a tank of gas. A later model, the 40B had a bigger cabin and could carry four passengers. Thirty-eight 40B planes had been built by 1929. The planes were produced until 1932 when newer models such as the Boeing Monomial and Boeing model 80 were built.

This “Woolaroc” Travel Air 5000 plane won the 1927 Dole air race.
Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum Archives

Travel Air 5000

A more obscure mail plane was the Travel Air 5000, introduced in 1927. The plane was built by the Travel Air Manufacturing Company and only 14 were produced. The plane was mainly used by National Air Transport, which bought five planes for use on CAM 3 in 1927. The plane had an impressive 675-725 miles range and could carry 750 lbs. of mail along with five passengers. 26 One of the Travel Air 5000 planes, nicknamed the “Woolaroc,” gained fame for winning the infamous 1927 Dole Air Race 27 from Oakland to Hawaii. It survives today as one of two Travel Air 5000s. National Air Transport retired its Travel Air 5000 in 1930.

Pitcairn PA-7S Mail Wing

In 1930 Pitcairn improved their PA-5 Mail Wing with the PA-7M. The PA-7M, also known as the Super Mail Wing, could carry 636 lbs. of mail and flew faster than the PA-5 at 135 mph. The plane used a J6 Wright 240 hp motor. Pitcarin used the PA-7M on CAM 19 (New York City and Atlanta, Georgia). Only eight PA-7Ms were made. Their production was cut short by the production of the new PA-8 only a few months later.

Boeing 221 Monomail

Boeing took a leap into the future of aviation in 1930 with the Monomail. This aircraft was ahead of its time, with retractable landing gear, a smooth streamlined body, and single wings set off from the bottom of the fuselage. The remarkable design, however, was more advanced than the engines or propellers of the age. Only two Monomail planes were ever built, models 200 and 221. The Monomial 200 was an all-cargo mail model that could carry 2280 lbs. of mail at 158 mph. 28 The Monomail 221 carried six passengers and 750 lbs. of mail. 29 Both planes had 575hp Pratt and Whitney “Hornet B” motors, a lit instrument panel, and shock absorbers in the landing gear.

Both the 200 and 221 Monomail planes were converted into model 221A for transcontinental passenger services. That model could hold eight passengers. The original Monomail 200 had been converted into a 221A before it crashed in 1935. The other plane was likely retired and scrapped by Boeing after 1933.

Sikorsky S-42

The Sikorsky S-42 was one of the first commercially successful seaplanes. The US Navy experimented with the seaplanes and private manufacturers for years and a few were used in early flights between Florida and Cuba. The S-42 was introduced to the public by Pan American airways in 1934. The plane was quite powerful thanks to its four 750hp Pratt and Whitney motors. 30 A Sikorsky S-42 could carry 2,000 lbs. of mail along with 36 passengers. 31

The plane was used by Pan American World Airways on routes between Miami and South America on their Foreign Airmail (FAM) 5 (Miami and Central and South America) and FAM 17 (Baltimore, Maryland and Bermuda). These planes showed how luxurious flying could be. The S-42 had full sized beds for passengers, a complete kitchen and staff who could cook three course meals. 32 The plane could reach 190 mph and set a flight record between Hawaii and San Francisco, California of 17 hours and 57 min on a survey flight to China in 1935. 33 No S-42s survive today. Six have crashed and sank and the other four were scrapped by Pan Am after the adoption of later clipper models such as the Martin M-130. There are a few cousins of the S-42s in museums across the US such as the Sikorsky S-39s, S-40s, and S-43s.

Douglas DC-3

The Douglas DC-3 is an iconic plane that marked the explosion of commercial air travel in the US and the final transition for airlines from a reliance on mail to passengers for paying their bills. The Douglas DC-3 originally flew in 1935 and was quickly adopted by airlines across the country. The plane demonstrated how far Douglas had come since the M-2 and how rapidly aircraft technology had evolved in ten years. The plane could carry 28 passengers and 2083 lbs. of mail at 183 mph. 34 American Airlines purchased 37 DC-3s as the foundation of its iconic “Flag ship Fleet” in 1937. 35 Pan Am used the DC-3 for its North American routes. United Airlines had six DC-3s that were used as late as 1956. By 1938, 95 percent of the planes flying in commercial air traffic were DC-3s. 36

By 1936 the aims of the Kelly Act finally came to fruition. What had begun in 1918 as a government operation to move mail across the country faster had transitioned in the late 1920s and early 1930s to the government, through the Post Office, assisting private companies in a quest to create a steady and broad commercial airlines service. Airlines that could barely survive in their early years found that airmail contracts not only kept them alive, but provided the funding to explore bigger and better airplanes, airplanes that could finally rely on passengers for the bulk of their revenues. Without the Post Office and its mail contracts, the nation’s commercial aviation system and airline manufacturers would not have become the giants of American industry that they are today.

1) Stites Sam. March 15, 1935. NASM Archives AC-901948-01

2) Leary, William M. Aerial Pioneers: The U.S. Air Mail Service 1918-1927. Smithsonian Institute Press. 1985. Pg. 33

3) Smithsonian’s National Air & Space Museum (NASM) Archives AS-782090-01

5) Nielson Dale. Saga of The U.S. Air Mail Service 1918-1927. Air Mail Pioneers, INC. 1962. Pg.99

6) McAllister Bruce, Davidson Jesse. Wing Across America. Round Up Press. 2004. Pg 114.

15) Liberman Alan, American Air Mail Routes Catalogue. Vol. 1. 7th Edition. National Air Mail Society. 2016. Pg. 23.

16) Liberman Alan, American Air Mail routes Catalogue. Vol. 1. 7th Edition. Str. 96.

23) Liberman Alan, American Air Mail routes Catalogue. Vol. 1. 7th Edition. Str. 36.

24) Liberman Alan, American Air Mail routes Catalogue. Vol. 1. 7th Edition. Str. 112

25) Liberman Alan, American Air Mail routes Catalogue. Vol. 1. 7th Edition. Str. 102

27) Of the eight planes that were in the race, two crashed on takeoff, three went missing during the race. Only two planes landed safely in Hawaii.


Douglas C-47/DC-3 “Cheeky Charlie”

Twin-engine Military Transport and Cargo Aircraft with a Crew of Three

Figure 1: The Cheeky Charley in Hawaii, in Military Camouflage Source: www.oldprops.ukhome.net

Ključne točke

  • The C-47 “Gooney Bird” was a military version of the Douglas DC-3, which entered service in 1936. The DC-3 is one of the most important transport aircraft of all time.
  • More than 16,000 civilian and military versions of the DC-3 were built.
  • C-47s could carry 28 passengers or 6,000 pounds of cargo, at a cruising speed of 160 mph, over a range of up to 1,600 miles. Civilian DC-3s normally served 21 passengers in seven rows of seats, with two on one side an isle and one on the other.
  • C-47s were used everywhere in World War II. They hopped among in the Pacific to fly long distances. They also flew supplies “over the hump” from India to China.
  • After World War II, most C-47s and other military variants were sold as surplus to airlines, making the DC-3 dominant for short and medium routes for decades afterward.
  • In Vietnam, some C-47s were converted into AC-47 “Spooky” gunships. Each Spooky had three 6-barrel 7.62 mm miniguns that fired out the side of the aircraft. Each minigun could fire up to 6,000 RPM or 4,000 RPM, depending on the model. Spookies flew pylon turns around ground targets.
  • Our aircraft served in the Pacific from 1943 to 1945. One of its names was “Cheeky Charley.” Afterward, it was used by a series of Australian airlines. When used by the Australian National Airlines, it was called “Tarrana” (Kangaroo). In 1972, Charley flew to Hawaii to handle commercial cargo service. While here, it had cameo roles in two movies—Pearl Harbor i Outbreak. During its time at Genavaco Corporation, it was used for interisland cargo operations in 1976. Genevaco called her “Tyranna.”
  • By the end of its war service, this aircraft had flown a little over 3,000 hours. By the end of her civilian life, this was 55,000 hours. In April 2012, Charley was towed from the Honolulu International Airport to its new home, Pacific Aviation Museum on Ford Island in Pearl Harbor.

Uvod

The Boeing website states that the Douglas DC-3 “is universally recognized as the greatest airplane of its time. Some would say that it is the greatest of all time.”[1] Certainly there is no doubt that passenger versions of the DC-3 introduced new levels of speed, comfort, and range. Beginning in 1936, DC-3s carried people across the U.S. continent with “only” three refueling stops and in less than 18 hours. When World War II became imminent, production shifted to military versions. The main USAAF variant was the C-47 Skytrain, which the British Commonwealth called the Dakota. Over 16,000 civilian and military versions of the DC-3 were built, including 607 civilian DC-3s, over 10,000 C-47s and other U.S. military variants, almost 5,000 Lisunov Li-2 in the USSR, and even 487 Showa L2Ds with Mitsubishi Kinsei engines in Japan.

Figure 2: Japanese Showa L2D Source: Wikipedia, Showa/Nakajima L2D

The DC-3 Emerges

Douglas introduced its DC-2 in 1932, with encouragement from TWA. (Only a single DC-1 prototype was built). The DC-2 could carry 14 passengers or 3,600 pounds of cargo. In comparison, the competing Boeing 247 could only carry 10 passengers. Figure 3 shows that the Douglas DC-2 and DC-3 shared a strong family resemblance.

Figure 3: Douglas DC-2 Source: Wikipedia, Douglas DC-2
Surprisingly, the DC-3 almost did not get built. American Airlines pushed Douglas to produce a larger aircraft that could carry more passengers and have sleeper berths. Douglas was reluctant to do so given the success of the DC-2 and uncertainty about the commercial viability of a larger aircraft. However, Douglas relented when American guaranteed an order for 20 of the aircraft. This became the Douglas Sleeper Transport.

Figure 4: Douglas Sleeper Transport Source: California State College
Douglas then extended this design to be the iconic DC-3, which carried 21 passengers with traditional seating in 7 rows of 3. A legend was born.

Figure 5: DC-3 Seating Source: California State College

Figure 6: DC-3 Cockpit Source: Paul Phelan, Aviation Advertiser
Today, we think of the DC-3 as a relic. When it came out, however, it was the latest and greatest thing in passenger speed, comfort, and range. A Douglas advertisement placed a DC-3 by a Cord Speedster to show their similar lines and to emphasize the new airplane’s performance.

Figure 7: Douglas DC-3 and Cord Speedster Source: Boeing

Figure 8: Norwegian Douglas DC-3 at the Duxford Air Show, 2007 Source: [email protected]
From its introduction in 1936, the DC-3 revolutionized the air transport industry. It was an advanced design with multi-cellular wings and an autopilot. Its innovative design won the Collier Trophy that year. The president of American Airlines said that the DC-3 was the first airliner that was profitable with passenger carriage alone, without government subsidies. Other airlines were quickly sold on the $160,000 DC-3 as well. By the beginning of 1939, an astounding 90% of the world’s passengers were flying on DC-2s or DC-3s.

The C-53 Skytrooper

As war came closer, the USAAF began to take over DC-3s originally destined for the airlines. The first of these military DC-3s was the C-53 Skytrooper, which was little-changed from the DC-3. It was designed to carry 28 paratroopers into combat.

Figure 9: Paratroopers U.S. Library of Congress, fsa.8e0022.

Figure 10: Paratroopers Deploying Source: Imperial War Museum, 4700-30 BU 1162.
The C-53 was also designed to tow gliders. Normally, the glider would trail the aircraft at take-off.

Figure 11: C-47 Taking Off, Towing a Glider Source: Imperial War Museum, 4700-06 EA 37974.
For field recovery, the C-53 would snag a tow line, yanking the glider into the air. It was even possible to tow a pair of gliders.

Figure 12: Retrieving a Glider U.S. National Archives, 342-FH-3A20143-82467AC

The Definitive C-47 Skytrain

Given the cargo limitations of the C-53, the USAAF purchased only about 380 Skytroopers. Then production began on the improved C-47 Skytrains. Douglas built more than 10,000 C-47s. However, the first C-47 did not fly until just after the Pearl Harbor attack, so civilian DC-3s and C-53s had to hold the line until massive numbers of C-47s began to appear.

Figure 13: C-47s in Flight Source: U.S Air Force Photo
Compared to DC-3s and C-53s, C-47s had strengthened floors for carrying cargo and stronger landing gears. However, their most visible feature was their double-wide doors designed to facilitate cargo loading and unloading. It was even possible to push a ramp up to the door and drive a jeep inside.

Figure 14: C-47s and R4Ds in the Berlin Airlift Source: U.S. Navy National Museum of Naval Aviation

Figure 15: Driving a Jeep into a C-47 Source: USAAF Photograph at Lonesentry.com
More versatile than the C-53, the C-47 quickly became the standard model, even taking over paratroop insertion. Soon, the C-47 “Gooney Birds” were everywhere in the war. They were especially important in the Pacific, where they island-hopped to fly very long missions. They especially also critical in moving supplies “Over the Hump” from India to China after Burma fell.
For wounded soldiers, its ability to do medical evacuation was literally a life saver. The situation inside was crude by modern standards, but the C-47 was the only option in most theaters.

Figure 16: Medical Evacuation Source: United States Army Air Forces

The RD4

The Navy version of the C-47 was the RD4. In the World War II Navy designation system, R stood more-or-less for transport, and 4D indicated that this was the fourth transport aircraft from Douglas.

Figure 17: Navy R4D Source: United Kingdom, public domain.

Poslije rata

After the war, the armed forces dumped most of their C-47s and other military versions of the DC-3 on the civilian market. Airlines quickly converted this flood of aircraft into civilian cargo and passenger airplanes. Although DC-3s lacked the range of the new four-engine civilian aircraft that were becoming popular for longer flights, their extremely low cost, high reliability, and ability to land everywhere made them a natural for almost everything else. DC-3s dominated the civilian aircraft market for many years, and the aircraft’s lifespan was lengthened by such extensions as turbofan engines. Quite a few DC-3s are still in use.

Vietnam EC-47s and AC-47s Spooky

Although the Air Force reduced its C-47 inventory after World War II, it continued to use Gooney Birds heavily. In Vietnam, in addition to C-47s providing passenger and cargo services, EC-47s took on electronic warfare tasks. They quickly became known as the “Electric Gooneys.”
More dramatically, the C-47s were finally given guns and redesignated AC-47s. Three six-barrel 7.62 mm General Electric miniguns would fire out the left side of the aircraft. One fired through the open door, the other two through windows. These AC-47s were called Spookies or Dragons (after Puff the Magic Dragon).

Figure 18: AC-47 Gunship with Its Three Miniguns Visible Source: Marine Aviation Museum
In action, the C-47 flew a pylon circle on the targets. Initially able to fire up to 6,000 rounds per minute from each minigun (later up to 4,000 rounds per minute to conserve ammunition), the AC-47s could fire a devastating volume of bullets into any target that lacked strong anti-aircraft defenses. The pilot was the actual gunner, controlling the weapons through a button on the control yoke and using a camera viewfinder attached to the left window to aim the gunfire. AC-47s were soon joined by the much more powerful and more heavily armed AC-130 gunships.

Figure 19: AC-47 Gunship Pass Source: Marine Aviation Museum


Figure 20: AC-47 Gunship in Pylon Turn Source: Marine Aviation Museum

Our C-47

Our C-47, which was called Cheeky Charley during its World War II career, had a distinguished service record in the Pacific. Afterward, it operated in Australia until 1972, when it was transferred to Hawaii. It came to Pacific Aviation Museum in April, 2012. It’s service life exceeded 50,000 flight hours.

Građevinarstvo

Our C-47 was completed at the Douglas Long Beach Plant in October 1943.
It was built as a C-47-A-65-DL.
Douglas serial number was 18949.
USAAF serial number was 42-100486.

Service in World War II

Delivered to the 5 th Air Force at Brisbane on December 12, 1943.
Operated by 40 th TCS as “Cheeky Charley” with nose number 32.
Also operated by the 6 th TCS, the 67 th TCS, and the 68 th TCS.


How The DC-3 Changed Air Travel Forever

The Douglas DC-3 is widely regarded as one of the most important developments in commercial passenger aviation. Entering service way back in 1936, the Douglas DC-3 immediately showed its capabilities as a passenger aircraft. Alongside its military counterpart, the C-47 Skytrain/C-53 Skytrooper, the Douglas DC-3 remained in operation in many different capacities for decades. Below we’ll explain why the Douglas DC-3 was so important.

The Douglas DC-3 was developed at the request of American Airlines CEO, C.R. Smith. Smith wanted a long-distance sleeper aircraft which would allow American Airlines to transport passengers across the US.

The Douglas DC-3 was developed on the existing platform of its predecessors, the Douglas DC-1 and DC-2. It was larger than these previous models, coming in both 21-seater ‘daytime’ airliner and 14-16 berth sleeper versions.

Immediately upon release with American Airlines on 26 June 1936, the Douglas DC-3 proved itself to be a step above any other commercial passenger aircraft released to date.

Other airlines in America, Europe and even further afield soon recognized the DC-3’s capabilities.

By the time the second world war broke out, the DC-3 was in use around the world.

What made the DC-3 such a success?

Before the DC-3 came along, airlines were still struggling to make long-distance passenger aircraft a commercial success.

The Douglas DC-3’s predecessor, the DC-2, had made good progress towards airlines’ goal of an aircraft which could transport more than 10 passengers over considerable distances. But it still wasn’t ideal.

One problem with the DC-2 was the size of its cabin, which was too narrow to fit side-by-side berths.

The Douglas DC-3 was built with an extra 60 cm of cabin width, which allowed airlines to fit in more seats and sleeper berths for long-distance journeys.

It was also fitted with much more powerful Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp engines, which each produced 1,200 hp. By comparison, the DC-2 was fitted with two engines ranging from 710 to 875 hp.

The upgraded engines allowed the Douglas DC-3 to cruise at 207 mph which, although sluggish in today’s terms, was very impressive for an airliner of its size back in the 1930s.

The Douglas DC-3 could also operate on short runways and had a range of 1,500 miles. This made it perfect for transcontinental flights across the US and Europe.

The Douglas DC-3’s military career

Because of its reliability, simplicity and adaptability, the Douglas DC-3 was soon called into action when World War Two broke out.

The DC-3 was modified for military use, primarily as the C-47 Skytrain. A specialized troop transport version, called the C-53 Skytrooper, was also built.

The C-47 Skytrain served extensively for the Allies during World War Two, transporting cargo, troops and various other supplies.

But the C-47 Skytrain’s military career did not end with victory in World War Two. It went on to serve in the Vietnam War, where some examples were modified to operate as minigun-equipped gunships.

Remarkably, the C-47 Skytrain remained in service with the US military until 2008, when the 6 th Special Operations Squadron retired its last C-47, a British-made C-47 Dakota.

While the C-47 Skytrain has left military service, there are many Douglas DC-3s still in operation in a civilian capacity around the world.


Sub-Contractor

In 1947, AVCO sold its controlling share Convair to American investment firm, Atlas Corporation. Seven years later, in 1954, Atlas Corporation would sell the company to General Dynamics, where it would become the Convair division of General Dynamics.

Over the course of developing both the CV-880 and CV-990, General Dynamics had sunk a fortune into both aircraft, with the combined 102 copies sold not even covering a fraction of the jets’ development costs.

Not wanting to ever repeat this again, General Dynamics forbade Convair engineers from designing new aircraft in its entirety.

On the surface of things, it appeared as though Convair had gotten out of the aviation game, instead focusing on producing military aircraft. In reality, however, Convair had simply removed the risk.

You see, General Dynamics accountants had realized that the commercial aviation industry was growing at a rate far greater than they’d expected, with aircraft manufacturers having far too many orders to fulfill.

Having the production lines and trained staff (who’d built the CV-880 and CV-990), General Dynamics’ Convair subsidiary soon began negotiating contracts to become a sub-contractor for civil aircraft manufacturers like Boeing, Lockheed and McDonnell Douglas.

Although it occasionally did other sub-contracting jobs, Convair’s specialty was manufacturing aerostructures and airframes, building the airframes for the 747-100, 747-200s, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, DC-10 and MD-11.

This is something it would do from 1965 until the subsidiary’s dissolution in 1996.


Douglas R4D-8 (Super DC-3)

The Douglas R4D-8 emerged from an unsuccessful attempt by Douglas to extend the commercial lifespan of the aging DC-3. At the end of the Second World War a vast number of DC-3s, C-47s, C-53s and Dakotas flooded onto the commercial market, but by the end of the 1940s many of these aircraft were threatened by increasingly strict Civil Air Regulations in the United States, and the looming expiry of their airworthiness certificates in 1952.

Douglas responded by developing a modified version of the DC-3, the DC-3S or Super DC-3, which could be produced by upgrading existing aircraft. The new aircraft had a stronger longer fuselage, with room for 30 passengers. The passenger door was moved forward, and the door itself could be used as the boarding stairs. Both the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces were enlarged, and given square tips, improving the single-engine performance of the aircraft. The engine nacelles were modified so that they could carry either 1,475hp Wright Cyclone engines or 1,450hp Pratt & Whitney R-200-D7 radial engines, and to allow the wheels to be fully enclosed. Finally the outer panels of the wing were shortened, and 4 degrees of sweepback was added to the trailing edges.

The first modified aircraft made its maiden flight on 23 June 1949, and was a technical success. Payload increased, while top speed went up by 40mph and cruising speed by 44mph. Unfortunately the aircraft was a commercial failure. Despite its improved performance, the Super DC-3 still trailed behind newer aircraft (most notably the Convair Liner series), which appealed to the larger airlines, while smaller airlines were eventually able to get their DC-3s recertified. Only four commercial aircraft were sold.

An attempt to interest the USAF was no more successful. The first prototype was evaluated as the YC-47F (after a short spell as the YC-129), but was rejected in favour of the Convair C-131, based on the Liner. The aircraft was then passed on to the Navy, and finally found a customer.

After evaluating the aircraft during 1951, the US Navy awarded Douglas with a contract to convert 100 of their existing R4D-5s, -6s and 7s to the new standard, with the designation R4D-8. They retained this designation until 1962, when under the combined Department of Defence system they became the C-117D.

Three special versions of the R4D-8 were developed &ndash the R4D-8T (TC-177D) trainer, the R4D-8Z (VC-117D) staff transport and the R4D-8L (LC-117D) cold weather aircraft.

The Navy&rsquos R4D-8s saw combat in Korea, where they were used for night drops and as flareships, to illuminate areas under attack at night. In Vietnam most were used as conventional transport aircraft, but some were used as electronic monitoring aircraft.

Engines: Wright R-1820-80 x2
Power: 1,475hp each
Crew: Three plus 33 passengers
Wing span: 90ft
Length: 67ft 9in
Height: 18ft 3in
Empty weight: 19,537lb
Loaded weight:
Maximum weight: 31,000lb
Maximum speed: 270mph at 5,900ft
Cruising speed: 251mph
Maximum range: 2,500 miles


McDonnell Douglas Corporation

McDonnell Douglas was formed in 1967 through the merger of Douglas Aircraft Company with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. Douglas Aircraft originated in 1921, when the American aircraft designer Donald Douglas established Douglas Company as a successor to a company he had cofounded the previous year. Douglas Company built its early reputation with the World Cruiser, a single-engine biplane that, in 1924, became the first aircraft to fly around the world. The company was restructured in 1928 as Douglas Aircraft Company, and a few years later it began building its “DC” (Douglas Commercial) series of passenger planes. The twin-engine DC-3, first flown in 1935, became the model for future commercial aircraft through its unprecedented level of comfort, reliability, high speed, and, above all, low maintenance cost. Together with its military derivative, the C-47 Skytrain transport, the DC-3 became the best-selling commercial airframe in history, with a production run of 10,300. During World War II Douglas Aircraft contributed some 29,000 warplanes, one-sixth of the U.S. airborne fleet.

After the war the company continued to dominate the commercial air routes with its piston-engine DC-6 (first flown in 1946) and DC-7 (1953), whose range made possible nonstop coast-to-coast service. It also developed a number of military jets and missiles, including the A4D Skyhawk (first flown in 1954), a compact, carrier-based attack bomber the Nike series of antiaircraft and anti-ballistic-missile missiles in the 1950s and ’60s and the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile (first launched in 1957), which later became a first-stage space launcher and gave rise to the Delta family of launch vehicles. In 1965 Douglas first flew its twin-engine DC-9 short-haul commercial jetliner, which became the company’s most successful transport since the DC-3.



Komentari:

  1. Mathers

    We must have a look !!!

  2. Gorre

    I am final, I am sorry, but this variant does not approach me.

  3. Ruanaidh

    Vjerujem da si pogriješio

  4. Nikolar

    Not bad, I liked it, but somehow sad! (



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