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12. decembar 2014. 326. dan šeste godine - istorija

12. decembar 2014. 326. dan šeste godine - istorija


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Predsjednik Barack Obama prolazi hodnikom u prizemlju nakon prazničnog prijema u Bijeloj kući, 12. decembra 2014

10:00 PREDSJEDNIK i POTPREDSJEDNIK primaju predsjednički dnevni brifing
Ovalni ured

11:45 PREDSJEDNIK se sastaje sa saudijskim ministrom unutrašnjih poslova princom Mohammedom bin Nayefom bin Abdalazizom Al Saudom; prisustvuje i POTPREDSJEDNIK
Ovalni ured

13:45 PREDSJEDNIK se sastaje sa svojim timovima za nacionalnu bezbjednost i javno zdravlje kako bi primio najnovije informacije o odgovoru na ebolu; prisustvuje i POTPREDSJEDNIK
Roosevelt Room


Važni događaji od ovog dana u istoriji 6. decembra

Zapovjednik najvećeg nuklearnog ratnog broda na svijetu James L. Holloway III smatra da drugi napad na Pearl Harbor u razmjerama 7. prosinca 1941. nije bio vjerojatan. On je primijetio: "Od Drugog svjetskog rata, mi smo bili u ratu više nego što nismo bili u ratu ... Ovo je najstručnija i najkompetentnija vojska koju mogu zamisliti da je ikada postojala u istoriji."

Republikanski senator čajanke Jim DeMint iz Južne Karoline najavio je da će podnijeti ostavku na svoju funkciju kako bi preuzeo posao koji vodi konzervativni think tank.

Šest muškaraca koji su navodno pretrpjeli simptome trovanja zračenjem zadržali su vlasti u Meksiku samo nekoliko dana nakon što je kamion s radioaktivnim medicinskim otpadom otet izvan Mexico Cityja. Kamion je prevozio "Colbalt-60" i nije bilo vjerovatno da su lopovi znali šta se nalazi u kamionu, vlasti su izvijestile da će se svako ko je došao u bliski kontakt sa supstancom vjerovatno suočiti sa smrtonosnim simptomima otrovanja zračenjem.


ACCT 326 FINAL

Date Cash
kamata Efektivna kamata Smanjenje bilansa Nepodmireno stanje
1/1/2016 $207,020
6/30/2016 $7,000 $6,211 $789 206,230
12/31/2016 7,000 6,187 813 205,417
6/30/2017 7,000 6,163 837 204,580
12/31/2017 7,000 6,137 863 203,717
6/30/2018 7,000 6,112 888 202,829
12/31/2018 7,000 6,085 915 201,913
6/30/2019 7,000 6,057 943 200,971
12/31/2019 7,000 6,029 971 200,000

Date Cash
kamata Efektivna kamata Smanjenje bilansa Nepodmireno stanje
1/1/2016 $207,020
6/30/2016 $7,000 $6,211 $789 206,230
12/31/2016 7,000 6,187 813 205,417
6/30/2017 7,000 6,163 837 204,580
12/31/2017 7,000 6,137 863 203,717
6/30/2018 7,000 6,112 888 202,829
12/31/2018 7,000 6,085 915 201,913
6/30/2019 7,000 6,057 943 200,971
12/31/2019 7,000 6,029 971 200,000


1. januara 2016. 340.000 USD
1. septembra 2016. 510.000 USD
31. decembra 2016. 510.000 USD
31. marta 2017. 510.000 USD
30. septembar 2017. 340.000 USD

Dreamworld je kroz obje godine imao 7.000.000 USD u 14% obveznicama.


1. januara 2016. 340.000 USD × 12/12 = 340.000 USD
1. septembar 2016. 510.000 × 4/12 = 170.000
31. decembra 2016. 510.000 × 0/12 = 0

Advokati za kupoprodajni ugovor

Inženjeri će odrediti potrebnu ocjenu

Arhitekte za projektovanje nove zgrade

Izgradnja nove zgrade

U finansijskim izvještajima kompanije Kilroy od 31. decembra 20X4., Kako će se prikazati gore navedeni troškovi?

I. Procjena iznosa za koji fer vrijednost imovine iskazane po historijskom trošku premašuje prijavljeni iznos.

II. Opći opis metode ili metoda koje se koriste u obračunu amortizacije.

III. Očekuju se velike popravke ili zamjene dugotrajne imovine u predstojećem radnom ciklusu.

Donirana imovina se ne evidentira u bilansu stanja preduzeća ako donator zahtijeva da poklon ostane anoniman.

Donirana imovina se evidentira po historijskom trošku u bilansu stanja preduzeća.

Prema GAAP -u, donacija imovine rezultirat će kreditom ili prihodom ili dobitkom.

Ako Clark Company kapitalizira najveći iznos kamata dopušten prema GAAP -u, koliko će Clark prijaviti kao trošak kamate u 20X1?

Kompanija Cougar izgradila je skladište tokom 2. i 3. godine. Tokom izgradnje izvršene su sljedeće uplate za građevinski materijal, rad i režijske troškove:

Kupovina pribora za sortiranje i skupljanje omota 25.000 USD
Ugradnja priključka 5.000 USD
Zamjenski dijelovi za obnovu mašine 15.000 USD
Rad i režijski troškovi vezani za obnovu 9.000 USD

Obnova je poboljšala efikasnost mašine za 20%. Ni pričvršćivanje ni obnova nisu povećali procijenjeni vijek trajanja mašine. Koji iznos gore navedenih troškova treba kapitalizirati?

Priznat će troškove popravka i održavanja od 6.000 USD i troškove amortizacije 2.250 USD.

Priznat će troškove popravka i održavanja od 6.000 USD i troškove amortizacije od 3.600 USD.

Kapitalizirat će se trošak izmjene i priznat će trošak amortizacije u iznosu od 3.000 USD.

Računarska oprema u vrijednosti od 320.000 USD koja će se koristiti za opće istraživačko -razvojne aktivnosti. Računar ima petogodišnji vek trajanja bez ikakve spasonosne vrednosti.
Oprema za skladištenje koja košta 240.000 dolara sadrži visoko isparljivu tvar koja se koristi u određenom istraživačkom projektu. Oprema za skladištenje ima vijek trajanja od 5 godina bez vrijednosti spašavanja. Očekuje se da će istraživački projekt završiti 3 godine, nakon čega oprema neće imati alternativnu upotrebu za kompaniju.
Mašina koja košta 180.000 dolara i koja će se koristiti za određeni istraživački projekat za koji se očekuje da će trajati godinu dana. Na kraju godine, oprema, koja ima vijek trajanja od 5 godina i nema vrijednost spašavanja, bit će korištena u proizvodnim operacijama Kompanije.

Koliko će X Company prijaviti kao trošak istraživanja i razvoja u svom bilansu uspjeha 20X2?

Dizajn periferne opreme, kao što su kalupi i matrice, uključuje potrebno

Izrada plana razvoja novog računara za proizvodni proces

opremu koja će se koristiti za opća istraživanja i

Razvojne aktivnosti s korisnim vijekom trajanja od 5 godina i bez vrijednosti spašavanja

Razvoj rješenja proizvodnih problema tokom reklame

proizvodnju jednog od proizvoda kompanije

Koliko će X Company prijaviti kao trošak istraživanja i razvoja u svom bilansu uspjeha 20X3?

Za svaku donju situaciju zabilježite odgovarajući unos u dnevnik za Richter Corp.

Pretpostavimo da kompanija koristi linearnu metodu za amortizaciju i da se sva amortizacija evidentira 31. decembra svake godine. Richter koristi zasebne račune glavne knjige za evidentiranje akumulirane amortizacije za svako nematerijalno ulaganje.

Dvaput kliknite na zasjenjene ćelije u koloni Naziv računa i odaberite s popisa odgovarajući naziv računa. Ako unos nije potreban, odaberite & quotNije unos potreban & quot. Račun se može koristiti jednom ili nikako za svaki unos.
Unesite odgovarajući iznos zaduženja ili kredita u odgovarajuću kolonu.
Zaokružite sve iznose na najbliži dolar.
Možda svi redovi neće biti potrebni za popunjavanje svakog unosa.


16 stvari koje su se desile u decembru kroz istoriju

Od 16. decembra 1773., kada su bostonski pobunjenici izbacili čaj u more, do 20. decembra 69. godine nove ere, kada je rimski car Aulus Vitellius odvučen u smrt - Dominic Sandbrook ističe događaje koji su se odigrali u decembru u istoriji.

Ovo takmičenje je sada zatvoreno

Objavljeno: 30. novembra 2018. u 16:55

Koji su se istorijski događaji dogodili u decembru? Mary Celeste pronađena je kako pluta u decembru 1872. John Lennon je ubijen u decembru 1980. moćnom rimskom advokatu Ciceronu odrubljena je glava u decembru 43. godine prije nove ere. James II je pobjegao iz Londona u decembru 1688. godine, a braća Wright obavili su prvi let u decembru 1903. Ovdje, Dominic Sandbrook ističe događaje koji su se dogodili u decembru u istoriji ...

4. decembra 1872: Marija Celeste pronađena je kako pluta u Atlantiku

Bilo je oko jedan popodne 4. decembra 1872. kada je John Johnson, kormilar brigantine Dei Gratia, ugledao brod na atlantskom horizontu. Skoro je odmah shvatio da nešto nije u redu. Brod se okretao u vodi, pa su mu čak i iz daljine jedra izgledala poderana i prljava. Johnson je pozvao svog drugog oficira, a zatim i kapetana. Svi su se složili da postoji nešto čudno. Dva sata su jednostavno gledali.

Na kraju, Dei Gratia's prvi drug, Oliver Deveau, pristao je ukrcati se na misteriozni brod koji je nosio to ime Mary (nije, suprotno legendi, Marie) Celeste. Tamo je pronašao "potpuno mokar nered" - ali bez znakova života. Brodski sat je stao, a kapetanov dnevnik je nestao, kao i sekstant i hronometar. Čamac za spašavanje je nestao, a pohabano uže jadno se vuklo u vodi. Ali gdje je bila posada?

Misterija Mary Celeste, svojim navodno netaknutim doručkom i šoljicama čaja (potpuna izmišljotina) oduvijek je fascinirao pisce. 1884. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle učinio ga je središtem jezive priče, a sablasni brod pojavio se u svemu, od romana Hammonda Innesa i Terryja Pratchetta do rane epizode Doktor Ko, koji je otkrio da je posada skočila s broda nakon što ju je Daleks terorizirao.

Ali istina je možda više prozaična. Brod je prevozio 1.700 barela komercijalnog alkohola iz New Yorka u Genovu, ali su istražitelji otkrili da je devet bačava prazno. Mnogi učenjaci vjeruju da su iz ovih bačvi ispuštene alkoholne pare, za koje se posada bojala da će vjerovatno izazvati eksploziju. U panici su vjerovatno uletjeli u čamac za spasavanje i bacili se u ocean, da bi ih valovi progutali - ili, ako vam je draže, Daleci ih istrijebili.

6. decembra 1648: Pukovnik Thomas Pride čisti parlament

Jedini pravi vojni udar u britanskoj istoriji počeo je 6. decembra 1648. Građanski rat je završio, a Charles I je bio zatvorenik, ali su pobjednici ispali među sobom. Dok je umjerena većina parlamenta htjela ponovno otvoriti pregovore s pobijeđenim kraljem, vojska Novog modela je vjerovala da je jednom prečesto prekršio riječ. Nešto je moralo dati, a početkom decembra zapovjednici vojske odlučili su djelovati.

Tek kad su se prvi poslanici popeli stepenicama koje su vodile do Doma naroda, shvatili su šta se dešava. Na vrhu, okružen ljudima iz svog puka, stajao je pukovnik Thomas Pride, bivši pivar u West Countryu koji se uzdigao pod komandom Olivera Cromwella. Pride je imao spisak članova, podijeljen na one koji se smatraju nepouzdanima i one koje je odobrila vojska. Kako se glas o njegovom prisustvu širio, mnogi su zastupnici pobjegli ili se klonili. Ali do završetka Pridea, najmanje 200 članova je bilo isključeno, a 45 uhapšeno. Zarobljenici su držani u pabu u blizini Westminsterske palače (nadimak Pakao), a kasnije su pušteni. Parlamentarni otpor je slomljen, vojska je bila gospodar Velike Britanije.

U sljedećih nekoliko dana, ono što je ostalo od Commonsa-takozvani Rump parlament-ponizno je palo u red, a do kraja januara Charles je pogubljen po optužbi za veleizdaju.

Vladavina krnja nije dugo trajala: 1653. godine nasilno ga je rastvorio Oliver Cromwell, koji je postao lord zaštitnik. Ali Kromvel nije zaboravio svoje dugove. Do trenutka kada je Thomas Pride umro 1658. godine, postao je Lord Pride, sa sjedištem u novom gornjem domu i imanjima u krugu bivše palače Henryja VIII. Nije previše otrcano za sina Yeomana iz Somerseta.

7. decembar 43. pne: Ciceron gubi glavu - i ruke - u Rimu

Kada je Julije Cezar ubijen 44. godine prije nove ere, advokat Marko Tulije Ciceron bio je jedan od najmoćnijih ljudi u Rimu. No, kao prvak senatskog protivljenja Cezarovom nasljedniku, Oktavijanu i njegovom starom prijatelju Marku Antoniju, Ciceron je odigrao njegovu ruku vrlo loše. Do decembra 43. pre nove ere činilo se da je njegovo hapšenje samo pitanje vremena.

Ciceron je 7. decembra napustio svoju seosku kuću izvan Rima prema obali, gdje se nadao da će uhvatiti brod za Makedoniju. Samo nekoliko trenutaka kasnije, dva oficira, po imenu Herennius i Popilius, stigli su u potjeru. Iako su Ciceronovi robovi odbili reći im odredište, policajci su izvukli podatke iz jednog od oslobođenika njegovog brata.

Kad su ubice uhvatile Cicerona, nije pružio otpor. Kao što je biograf Plutarh kasnije napisao: „On je nepokolebljivo gledao svoje ubice, svoju osobu prekrivenu prašinom, bradu i kosu bez šišanja i lice iscrpljeno od nevolja.“

Ciceron je navodno rekao Herenniju: "Nema ništa ispravno u tome što radiš, vojniče, ali pokušaj da me ubiješ kako treba", i nagnuo se iz svog legla kako bi ih jasno udario. Time je Herennius izvukao mač i odsekao glavu Ciceronu.

Nakon toga, Herennius je odsjekao Ciceronove ruke - ruke koje su napisale njegove poznate govore ismijavajući Antonija - i odnio ih, s glavom, natrag u Rim. Tamo ih je Antony trijumfalno objesio na Forumu. Ali prema Plutarhu, rimski narod je "vjerovao da tamo nije vidio Ciceronovo lice, već sliku Antonijeve vlastite duše".

8. decembra 1980: Ludi obožavatelj ubija Johna Lennona

Za muzičara Johna Lennona posljednji dan u životu počeo je isto kao i svaki drugi. Bivši Beatle fotografirao se s američkom fotografkinjom Annie Leibovitz u njegovom stanu u zgradi Dakota u New Yorku, a zatim je dao intervju sa džokejom iz San Francisca. Nešto prije 18 sati, Lennon i njegova supruga Yoko Ono otputovali su u studio za snimanje. Na odlasku, Lennon je, kako je to bio običaj, zastao kako bi obožavaocima dao autograme. Među njima je bio i 25-godišnji zaštitar sa Havaja, Mark Chapman, koji je bez riječi predao primjerak Lennonovog posljednjeg albuma. "Je li ovo sve što želiš?" Upitao je Lennon dok je pisao svoje ime.

Bilo je skoro 23 sata kada se Lennonova limuzina ponovo pojavila ispred zgrade Dakota. Gotovo čim je muzičar izašao, bacio je pogled prema sjeni, možda prepoznavši čovjeka kojeg je ranije vidio. I u tom trenutku Chapman je otvorio vatru. Prvi metak promašio je sljedeća četiri i svi su pogodili metu.

Dok je Lennon ležao krvareći, Chapman je ispustio pištolj. Kada je policija stigla, on je držao primerak knjige JD Salinger Lovac u raži.
Taj je dan bio ponedjeljak i, što je bizarno, upravo su komentatori ABC -a na večernjoj utakmici američkog fudbala objavili vijest o Lennonovoj smrti.

Za nekoliko trenutaka vijest se proširila svijetom: hiljade obožavalaca okupilo se ispred zgrade Dakota, dok su milioni oplakivali cijeli svijet. Šest dana nakon ubistva, oko 30.000 ljudi odalo je počast u Liverpoolu, dok se dodatnih 225.000 okupilo u New Yorku.

Chapman, koji je napustio fakultet i koji je prije ponovnog rođenja bio veliki ljubitelj Beatlesa, osuđen je na doživotnu robiju. Od 2000. godine imao je osam ročišta za uslovni otpust, od kojih nijedno nije bilo uspješno.

9. decembar 1960: Milioni gledalaca se pridružuju prvoj epizodi Coronation Street airs

Za britansku publiku 9. decembar 1960. bio je prekretnica u televizijskoj istoriji. Te večeri u sedam, s više od 3 miliona ljudi koji su zurili u svoje setove, limena glazba zasvirala je u žalosnoj melodiji, zrnasta crno-bijela slika pokazivala je dugu ulicu ravnih leđa, i Coronation Street započela je svoj rekordni uspjeh kao najomiljenija nacija sapunice.

Coronation Street bio je zamisao mladog scenariste iz Granade, Tonyja Warrena. U skladu sa sociološkim trendovima kasnih 1950-ih, Warren je želio istražiti život radničke klase na urbanom sjeveru, svijetu koji se već transformirao poslijeratnim bogatstvom.

"Fascinantno masonstvo, svezak nepisanih pravila", započeo je svoju bilješku o novoj seriji. “Ovo su pokretačke snage života u ulici radničke klase na sjeveru Engleske. Neupućenom autsajderu sve bi ovo bilo potpuno neshvatljivo. ” Poanta njegove nove emisije, objasnio je, bila je "zabaviti se ispitivanjem zajednice ove vrste i inicirati gledaoce na načine ljudi koji tamo žive".

Ipak, iako su gledaoci očigledno obožavali novi sapun, kritičari nisu bili ljubazni Coronation Street. U ogledalu je jedan pisac mislio da se Warren fokusirao na „pogrešne ljude. Jer ima malo stvarnosti u njegovoj novoj seriji, koju ćemo, očigledno, morati trpjeti dva puta sedmično. ” Glavni recenzent lista, Jack Bell, primijetio je sličnu notu. Pitao se, tko bi uopće mogao poželjeti ovu "kontinuiranu domaću muku koja se sastoji od života dvije večeri sedmično"?

11. prosinca 1688: James II bježi iz Londona

U ranim jutarnjim satima 10. decembra, Jakovljeva kraljica, Marija od Modene, otputovala je u Francusku sa svojim sinom. Sledeće noći, James je usledio. Kad je izlazio iz svoje palače, naredio je da se spaljuju spisi u kojima se poziva na novi parlament, a kako se njegov mali skif zaletio niz Temzu u mraku, za njega se kaže da je Veliki pečat carstva bacio na brod, kao da se nada da će uništiti samu osnovu engleske vlade.

Nažalost za Jamesa, njegova ponuda za bijeg završila je sramotom. Nekoliko sati kasnije, 11. ujutro, njegov se čamac zaustavio u Favershamu kako bi uzeo još balasta, a lokalni pomorci su prepoznali njegovog prijatelja Sir Edwarda Halesa. U početku su smatrali Jamesa samo za "ružnog popističkog psa mršave vilice s sjekirom" kada su saznali tko je on, međutim, ponašali su se prema njemu gore nego ikad. Zaključan u pabu Faversham, nije mu bilo dopušteno ni da samostalno ode u toalet, već je bio okružen samozvanim stražarima i razvodnicima. Tri dana kasnije, Jakovljevi prijatelji uspjeli su ga izvući, ali za čovjeka koji se smatrao pomazanim od Boga, ovo je bilo vrhunsko poniženje.

14. decembar 557. godine: Zemlja se kreće u Carigradu

Oko ponoći 14. decembra 557. godine Carigrad je osjetio prve potrese. Njegovim ljudima zemljotresi nisu bili stranci - bilo ih je prije samo nekoliko mjeseci - ali ovo je izgledalo još gore. Kako su se zgrade rimske prijestolnice počele tresti, iz carskog grada su se podigli "vriskovi i jadikovke". Nakon svakog potresa, zabilježio je povjesničar Agathias, začuo se „dubok, režanje poput grmljavine koja izvire iz utrobe zemlje“, dok je nebo „postalo mračno uz isparljive izdisaje zadimljene izmaglice koja se dizala iz nepoznatog izvora i zablistalo“ sa tupim sjajem ”.

Obuzeti masovnom panikom, gradsko stanovništvo izlilo se na ulice. Okrenuli su oči prema nebu, napisao je Agathias, kao da "umiruju božanstvo".

Ali to nije bilo dobro. Svuda je bio zvuk rušenja i vrištanja, a u kaosu je "uređena struktura društva ... bačena u divlju konfuziju i zgažena". Ali kad je svanulo, i kad je bilo gotovo, „ljudi su krenuli naprijed da se sretnu, radosno gledajući u lica svojih najbližih, ljubeći se i grleći se i plačući od oduševljenja i iznenađenja“.

Ostatak te zime, pisao je Agathias, stanovnike Carigrada mučile su "mučne sumnje i postojani strahovi". Mnogi su na nesreću gledali kao na božanski sud o svojim grijesima - i o njihovom caru, Justinijanu. Nakon toga, car je krenuo u obnovu ogromnog broja javnih zgrada oštećenih u potresu. Ali jedva šest mjeseci kasnije, glavna kupola Aja Sofije, dragulj njegove prijestolnice, srušila se u ruševine. Međutim, struktura koja ga je zamijenila stoji do danas.

16. decembra 1773: Bostonski pobunjenici izbacili su čaj u more

U Bostonu je bilo mračno kada je počela Čajanka. Nakon godina sve veće napetosti između Britanije i njenih američkih kolonija, pažnja se usredotočila na Zakon o čaju iz 1773. godine, koji je potvrdio kontroverzni porez na uvozni čaj. Krajem novembra prvi čajni brod, Dartmouth, stigao je u Boston, ali su lokalni aktivisti zahtijevali da se vrati kući bez plaćanja uvozne dažbine.

Poslednji dan pre isteka roka za isplatu iz Dartmoutha bio je 16. decembar. Raspoloženje je bilo nervozno u kući za sastanke Old South, nedaleko od luke, hiljade agitatora okupilo se protiv poreza na čaj. Glavni među njima bio je lokalni političar Samuel Adams, dugogodišnji protivnik britanske vlasti i budući osnivač Sjedinjenih Država.

Sa strastima koje su rasle, gomila je uskoro navalila prema luci. Te večeri, desetine muškaraca, od kojih su neki prerušeni u Indijance, ukrcali su se na Dartmouth i dva druga čajna broda, iskrcali stotine sanduka čaja i bacili ih u bostonsku luku. Bio je to čin čistog vandalizma, a u Britaniji su se vlasti zgražale.

Nekim posmatračima u Massachusettsu, međutim, Čajanka se učinila uzbudljivim pozivom na oružje. “U ovom posljednjem nastojanju patriota postoji dostojanstvo, veličanstvo, uzvišenost kojemu se izuzetno divim. Narod nikada ne bi trebao ustati a da ne učini nešto što treba zapamtiti: nešto zapaženo i upečatljivo ”, napisao je budući predsjednik John Adams u svom dnevniku. "Ovo uništavanje čaja je toliko odvažno, tako odvažno, neustrašivo i nefleksibilno, i mora imati toliko važne posljedice, i toliko trajno, da ga ne mogu ne smatrati epohom u istoriji."

Komentar stručnjaka - profesor Benjamin L Carp:

John Adams je s pravom primijetio hrabrost akcije Bostonaca. U principu su odbacili jeftiniji čaj - nisu prihvatili ovlasti parlamenta da ih oporezuje, mrzili su što su prihodi isplaćivali plaće određenim državnim službenicima i prezirali su favoriziranje parlamenta prema monopolu Istočnoindijske kompanije.

Uništavanje čaja izgleda još hrabrije jer je izazvalo strašne posljedice: akte prisile iz 1774. Zakon o luci u Bostonu zabranjivao je trgovinu sve dok grad nije napravio nadoknadu za čaj, prijeteći potpunom ekonomskom propašću. Zakon vlade Massachusettsa oduzeo je vlast gradskim sastancima i lokalnim porotama i povjerio ih kralju i njegovom guverneru. U međuvremenu, Zakon o sprovođenju pravde omogućio je zvaničnicima da se sude za teška krivična dela na povoljnijim mestima. Namjera ovih djela bila je izdvojiti Massachusetts (i njegov glavni grad) za kaznu, ali umjesto toga, oštrina zakona ujedinila je 13 američkih kolonija u njihovim žalbama protiv britanskog parlamenta.

Bostonska čajanka bila je nezakonit čin u odbranu viših principa, a kasnijih godina zagovornici građanske neposlušnosti s desne i lijeve strane naveli su njen primjer. Oni se kreću od praktičara nasilja (uključujući Ku Klux Klan i slobodarske bombardere) do praktičara nenasilja (uključujući Gandhija i Martina Luthera Kinga).

17. decembar 1903: Braća Wright lete u istoriju

Na obali Sjeverne Karoline, četvrtak 17. decembra 1903. bio je hladan i vrlo vjetrovit dan. Kad su se tog jutra Orville i Wilbur Wright probudili, mislili su da je to gotovo savršeno. Tri dana ranije, nakon višegodišnjih pokušaja, pokušali su podići svoj zrakoplov s primitivnim pogonom i rasponom krila od 40 stopa. Ali tek što ga je Wilbur skinuo s tla, avion je zastao i ponovo se spustio u pijesak. Sada je na red došao Orville.

Po konvencionalnim standardima, njih dvojica su napravili neverovatne istorijske ikone. Rođeni 1867. odnosno 1871. godine - sinovi evanđeoskog kršćanskog duhovnika - priča da ih je prvi put pogodio princip leta kada im je otac kupio igračku za helikopter. Nakon što su radili kao komercijalni štampači, par je otvorio prodavnicu bicikala, kapitalizujući ludilo za ciklusima, ali se cijelo vrijeme petljajući sa šemama uspio podići avion u nebo.

Nešto poslije 10.30 sati, Orville se popeo na letak. Razočaravajuće, njegov dnevnik ne uspijeva uhvatiti uzbuđenje koje je morao osjetiti. "Vjetar je, prema našim anemometrima u to vrijeme, puhao nešto više od 20 milja, 27 milja prema vladinom anemometru u Kitty Hawk", napisao je. “Nakon klizanja užeta, mašina je počela povećavati brzinu na vjerojatno sedam ili osam milja. Mašina je podignuta iz kamiona upravo kada je ulazila na četvrtu šinu. Gospodin Daniels je slikao upravo kad je napustio tragove ... Iznenadna strelica kad je udaljen oko 100 stopa od kraja tragova završio let. Vrijeme oko 12 sekundi (ne zna se točno jer sat nije odmah zaustavljen). ”

Bio je to prvi od četiri leta obavljena tog dana, svaki duži od prethodnog. Na četvrtom suđenju, Wilbur je proveo prvi avion na svijetu kroz zrak na udaljenost od 852 stope za 59 sekundi. Po prvi put, čovječanstvo je imalo moć leta. Bio je to zaista izvanredan trenutak.

20. decembra nove ere 69. godine: rimski car Aulus Vitelius dovučen je u smrt

Car Vitelije nije imao dobru štampu. Istoričar Suetonius rekao je da ga je "zamrljala svaka vrsta podlosti", dok je Cassius Dio tvrdio da je "ovisan o luksuzu i raskalašenosti". Ipak, do ljeta 69. godine, ovaj pohlepni, rasipni čovjek našao se gospodarom Rima. Usred haosa nakon Neronove smrti, dva zamjenska cara - Galba i Otho - već su bili i otišli, ostavljajući Vitelija, za sada, kao posljednjeg čovjeka koji je stajao.

Mora se reći da on nije bio očito impresivna figura. Svetonije je čak tvrdio da je bio toliko pohlepan da se "nikada nije mogao suzdržati, čak ni kada je žrtvovao ili putovao, da otme komade mesa i kolače usred oltara, gotovo od same vatre, i proždire ih na licu mjesta".

Međutim, do decembra, Vitelijevoj sreći je nestalo. Upravitelj Judeje, Vespazijan, digao se na ustanak i njegovi saveznici su marširali na Rim. 20. decembra, nakon što je vladao manje od godinu dana, Vitelije je bacio svoju ljubičastu haljinu, prerušio se u prljavu odjeću i sklonio se u stražarsku kućicu palate, navodno „vezavši psa pred vratima i stavio kauč i madrac protiv toga ”.

Nije iznenađujuće što se to pokazalo potpuno nedjelotvornim. Kad su malo kasnije vojnici upali, brzo su ga prepoznali. Dok je Vitelija polugolog dovukao na Forum, napisao je Svetonije, "neki su ga gađali izmetom i nečistoćom, drugi su ga nazivali zapaljivim i proždrljivim, a neki od rulje čak su mu se rugali i zbog njegovih tjelesnih nedostataka".

Konačno je njegovo mrtvo tijelo bačeno u rijeku Tiber. Njegove posljednje riječi, očigledno, bile su: "Ipak sam nekad bio vaš car!"

25. decembar 1991: Sovjetski Savez oduzima dah na samrti

25. decembra 1991. U Moskvi, gdje ima još dvije sedmice do pravoslavnog Božića, to bi trebao biti samo još jedan dan. Ali ovo je datum koji će ući u istoriju: posljednji dan Sovjetskog Saveza.

Povjesničari se još uvijek raspravljaju o tome kada se sovjetska država počela raspadati. Međutim, smrtonosni udarac dogodio se u augustu 1991. godine, kada su komunistički tvrdoglavi pripadnici, uznemireni brzinom promjena, izveli državni udar. Iako puč nije uspio, istrgao je srce komunističkom režimu. Početkom decembra čelnici ruske, bjeloruske i ukrajinske republike sastali su se u udaljenoj bjeloruskoj lovačkoj kući i potpisali sporazum o zauvijek okončanju Sovjetskog Saveza.

Za predsjednika Mihaila Gorbačova sporazum je bio poniženje, uništavajući njegove nade da ostane na čelu reformirane, decentralizirane sovjetske imperije. Naredne dvije sedmice izrezao je izrazito jadnu figuru, skrivenu u Kremlju, predsjedavajući zemljom koja je osuđena na propast.

25. decembra došao je kraj. U kratkom obraćanju u 19 sati, koje je direktno prenosila sovjetska televizija, Gorbačov je najavio da podnosi ostavku na svoju funkciju. Predsjednički ured, rekao je tužno, sada je izumro. Navodno je njegov govor snimila američka, a ne ruska posada, dok je pismo o ostavci potpisao olovkom Mont Blanc posuđenom od predsjednika CNN -a. Nekoliko minuta kasnije, Gorbačov je predao čuvenu aktovku s nuklearnim kodovima Sovjetskog Saveza službeniku koji je predstavljao ruskog predsjednika Borisa Jeljcina, koji je odbio da se lično pojavi.

U 19.32 došao je najsimboličniji trenutak od svih. Iznad Kremlja je posljednji put spuštena crvena sovjetska zastava. Na njegovo mjesto, Jeljcinovi ljudi podigli su crvenu, bijelu i plavu trobojnicu carske Rusije.

26. decembar 1792: Briljantna odbrana nije uspjela spasiti Luja XVI od giljotine

Bilo je pola deset ujutro kada je vojna pratnja Luja XVI. Zveckala po pariškoj kaldrmi vodeći ga na suđenje u Narodnu skupštinu. S napadom revolucionarne Francuske i strastima koje su se bunile na ulicama glavnog grada, malo je ljudi sumnjalo u konačnu presudu suđenja. Ali Louis je bio odlučan u namjeri da ima najbolju moguću odbranu i angažirao je Raymonda de Sèzea, koji je navodno bio jedan od najboljih advokata u zemlji.

Dvije sedmice de Sèze je radio gotovo bez pauze. Kad je ustao da se obrati Narodnoj skupštini, izgledao je iscrpljeno: u stvari, nije spavao četiri dana. Ipak, čak i Louisovi najžešći kritičari priznali su da je njegov advokat izveo komandnu predstavu.

Jedan po jedan de Sèze je prošao kroz optužbe tužioca, nemilosrdno secirajući njihova izobličenja i utaje. Zatim je uslijedilo nezaboravno izlaganje, hvaleći bivšeg kralja kao "stalnog prijatelja naroda". „Građani“, zaključio je, „ne mogu završiti ... Zaustavljam se pred istorijom. Zamislite kako će suditi vaš sud i da će se o njegovom sudu suditi stoljećima. "

Zatim je na red došao Louis. Blijed i tih, bio je odlučan u namjeri da izbjegne primjer engleskog Charlesa I, čiji mu prkos 1649. nije učinio uslugu. "Čuli ste moju odbranu, ne bih ponavljao detalje", rekao je tiho. "U razgovoru s vama možda posljednji put izjavljujem da mi savjest ništa ne zamjera i da su vam moji branitelji rekli istinu."

Nakon toga, na povratku, kralj je izgledao više zabrinut zbog slomljenog de Seza nego zbog sebe. Mesec dana kasnije, Louis je otišao na giljotinu.

29. decembar 1890: Do 300 Indijanaca ubijeno je u Ranjenom koljenu

Do zime 1890. godine, Lakota Sioux je dostigao mračan vrh. Nakon desetljeća širenja od strane bijelih doseljenika, s gonjenim krdima bizona gotovo do istrebljenja, većina je sada bila ograničena na rezervate u Sjevernoj i Južnoj Dakoti. Otuđeni i uplašeni, mnoge je privukao novi pokret Ghost Dance, koji je tvrdio da bi indijski domoroci kroz ezoterični kružni ples mogli protjerati doseljenike i ponovo zauzeti njihovu zemlju.

Za američke vlasti, pokret Ghost Dance prijetio je širem indijanskom ustanku. Međusobna sumnja lebdjela je u zraku kada je 28. prosinca 1890. godine grupa od 7 konjičkih vojnika presrela grupu od oko 350 Lakota Siouxa na putu prema rezervatu Pine Ridge i otpratila ih do Wounded Knee Creeka, Južna Dakota.

Kad je sutradan svanula zora, vojnici su naredili Siuksu da preda svako oružje. S naraštajem naraštaja, medicinar, Yellow Bird, počeo je izvoditi Ples duhova. Kada je drugi Sioux, Black Coyote, koji je bio gluh, odbio da se odrekne puške, vojnici su je pokušali nasilno oduzeti. Niko ne zna šta se dalje dogodilo: došlo je do sukoba, pucnjave - a onda je počela paljba.

Tek kada su posljednji hici utihnuli, opseg klanja bio je jasan. Najmanje 25 vojnika je palo, mnogi na prijateljsku vatru. No, posječeno je do 300 Siua, uključujući žene i djecu. Kao što se sjetio jedan veteran američke vojske: "Bijeli bijes ovog ludog okršaja prkosi mojim pokušajima opisa." Njegovi drugovi, priznao je, "jednostavno su poludjeli". Rezultat je bio jedan od najzloglasnijih masakra u američkoj istoriji.

29. decembra 1170: Vitezovi Henrika II rasturali su "mozak i krv" Thomasa Becketa

Thomas Becket, nadbiskup Canterburyja, bio je na putu za večernju večer kada su ga četiri viteza sustigla. Jahali su sa dvora Beketovog starog patrona, Henrika II, koji je bio bijesan zbog njegove štićenice odbrane crkvenih privilegija. Nakon što su njih dvojica bili prijatelji, Henry je navodno primijetio da mu je Becket pokazao više naklonosti u jednom danu nego što je to učinio njegov otac tokom cijelog života. Ali sada je Henrijevom strpljenju ponestalo. Kada su zamolili Becketta da dođe u kralju u Westminster, on je to odbio.

Nekoliko trenutaka kasnije, Henrijevi vitezovi izvršili su zastrašujuću kaznu. Da li su zaista djelovali po kraljevoj naredbi, nikada nećemo saznati. According to the monk Edward Grim, who was hiding near the altar, the knights launched their attack near the stairs leading to the cathedral choir. The first blow caught Becket’s head, slicing open his scalp. “Then he received a second blow on the head but still stood firm,” Grim wrote. “At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living victim, and saying in a low voice, ‘For the Name of Jesus and the protection of the Church I am ready to embrace death.”’

A fourth blow smashed Becket’s skull, so that, in Grim’s words, “the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral”. Then a clerk, who had accompanied the knights, put his foot on Becket’s neck, and “horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements”. “Let us away, knights,” the clerk said, “this fellow will rise no more.”

30 December 1460: Richard of York’s decapitated head is given a crown of paper

By the end of 1460, England was in tumult. After months of uneasy peace between the rival Lancastrian and Yorkist factions, open war had broken out once more.

31 December 1759: Ireland’s most famous drink is born

On the last day of 1759, a young man signed a 9,000-year lease on a dilapidated brewery on James Street, Dublin, for which he agreed to pay the sum of £45 a year.

His name was Arthur Guinness and he now enjoys near-legendary status in the Republic of Ireland. He was a member of the island’s Protestant Anglo-Irish elite. His father was a land steward for the archbishop of Cashel, but Arthur had decided to make his living as a brewer.

Since, at the time, there were already some 70 breweries in Dublin, it might have been thought that Guinness stood little chance of success. The country’s most popular drinks tended to be spirits and the quality of its beer was generally low. But Guinness’s business boomed, and by 1767 he had been elected master of the Dublin Corporation of Brewers.

By the time Guinness died, almost 40 years later, his brewery was turning out some 20,000 barrels of the black stuff every year. By the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, it was the biggest brewery in the British empire.

The key to Guinness’s success was his embrace of porter, a drink that for decades had been associated with London’s street and river porters. It was a dark, heavy beer, made from roasted barley and much more flavoursome than the thin ales then associated with Dublin’s brewers.

Contrary to popular belief, however, it has evolved considerably since then. Who knows whether Arthur would recognise the drink inside the bottles that, even today, still carry his signature?

Other December anniversaries

17 December 920

In Constantinople, the Byzantine admiral Romanos Lekapenos is crowned emperor alongside the existing ruler, the 15-year-old Constantine VII.

31 December 1857

After deliberating over a location for Canada’s new capital, Queen Victoria announces her choice: Ottawa.

Dominic Sandbrook is a historian and presenter.

These anniversaries were first published in past December issues of BBC History Magazine


Where Christian churches, other religions stand on gay marriage

The Supreme Court ruling earlier this year legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide has continued to raise questions about how the decision will affect religious groups – especially those that remain opposed to allowing gay and lesbian couples to wed. The court’s ruling makes clear that clergy and religious organizations are not obliged to perform same-sex marriages, but some groups have expressed concerns about their tax-exempt status.

Many of the largest U.S. religious institutions have remained firmly against allowing same-sex marriage, including the Roman Catholic Church, the Orthodox Jewish movement and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as the Southern Baptist Convention and other evangelical Protestant denominations. The nation’s largest historically black church, the National Baptist Convention, and its biggest Pentecostal denomination, the Assemblies of God, also prohibit their clergy from marrying same-sex couples.

At the same time, in the past two decades, several other religious groups also have moved to allow same-sex couples to marry within their traditions. This includes the Reform and Conservative Jewish movements, the Unitarian Universalist Association and the United Church of Christ.

And the list is growing: Clergy from the Episcopal Church will be able to perform same-sex marriage ceremonies after the church’s General Convention recently approved a new definition of marriage. Another mainline Protestant denomination, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), voted to formally sanction same-sex marriage earlier this year.

Among the four largest mainline Protestant churches, the same-sex marriage debate has not been simple. The United Methodist Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) (not to be confused with the Presbyterian Church in America, which opposes same-sex marriage) and the Episcopal Church have wrestled with the issue for years, often as part of a larger debate on the role of gays and lesbians in the church.

The new definition of marriage for the Episcopal Church, a member of the Anglican Communion, drew “deep concern” from the archbishop of Canterbury, whose Church of England does not sanction same-sex marriage. And the debate within the Presbyterian Church has already led some congregations to break away and join other, more conservative Presbyterian denominations. Both denominations allow clergy to opt out of performing same-sex marriages, while the ELCA allows ministers and their congregations to determine their own policies.

The United Methodist Church does not allow same-sex blessings or marriages. But the United Methodists also have been intensely debating the issue, particularly in the past year or so, after a church court tried, defrocked and eventually reinstated the Rev. Frank Schaefer, a Methodist pastor who had performed a same-sex marriage ceremony for his gay son. Schaefer’s case has split the church, with some clergy flouting the rules and marrying same-sex couples and other, more conservative members threatening to leave if the church does not hold to its current rules prohibiting gay marriage.

Overall, a solid majority of white mainline Protestants (62%) now favor allowing gays and lesbians to wed, with just 33% opposed, according to a 2015 Pew Research Center survey. A similar share (63%) say there is “no conflict” between their religious beliefs and homosexuality.

This is an update of a post originally published June 18, 2014 and previously updated on July 2, 2015.


A universe of 10 dimensions

Superstring theory posits that the universe exists in 10 dimensions at once. Credit: National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli.

When someone mentions "different dimensions," we tend to think of things like parallel universes – alternate realities that exist parallel to our own, but where things work or happened differently. However, the reality of dimensions and how they play a role in the ordering of our Universe is really quite different from this popular characterization.

To break it down, dimensions are simply the different facets of what we perceive to be reality. We are immediately aware of the three dimensions that surround us on a daily basis – those that define the length, width, and depth of all objects in our universes (the x, y, and z axes, respectively).

Beyond these three visible dimensions, scientists believe that there may be many more. In fact, the theoretical framework of Superstring Theory posits that the universe exists in ten different dimensions. These different aspects are what govern the universe, the fundamental forces of nature, and all the elementary particles contained within.

The first dimension, as already noted, is that which gives it length (aka. the x-axis). A good description of a one-dimensional object is a straight line, which exists only in terms of length and has no other discernible qualities. Add to it a second dimension, the y-axis (or height), and you get an object that becomes a 2-dimensional shape (like a square).

The third dimension involves depth (the z-axis), and gives all objects a sense of area and a cross-section. The perfect example of this is a cube, which exists in three dimensions and has a length, width, depth, and hence volume. Beyond these three lie the seven dimensions which are not immediately apparent to us, but which can be still be perceived as having a direct effect on the universe and reality as we know it.

Scientists believe that the fourth dimension is time, which governs the properties of all known matter at any given point. Along with the three other dimensions, knowing an objects position in time is essential to plotting its position in the universe. The other dimensions are where the deeper possibilities come into play, and explaining their interaction with the others is where things get particularly tricky for physicists.

The timeline of the universe, beginning with the Big Bang. According to String Theory, this is just one of many possible worlds. Zasluge: NASA

According to Superstring Theory, the fifth and sixth dimensions are where the notion of possible worlds arises. If we could see on through to the fifth dimension, we would see a world slightly different from our own that would give us a means of measuring the similarity and differences between our world and other possible ones.

U sixth, we would see a plane of possible worlds, where we could compare and position all the possible universes that start with the same initial conditions as this one (i.e. the Big Bang). In theory, if you could master the fifth and sixth dimension, you could travel back in time or go to different futures.

U seventh dimension, you have access to the possible worlds that start with different initial conditions. Whereas in the fifth and sixth, the initial conditions were the same and subsequent actions were different, here, everything is different from the very beginning of time. The eighth dimension again gives us a plane of such possible universe histories, each of which begins with different initial conditions and branches out infinitely (hence why they are called infinities).

U ninth dimension, we can compare all the possible universe histories, starting with all the different possible laws of physics and initial conditions. U tenth and final dimension, we arrive at the point in which everything possible and imaginable is covered. Beyond this, nothing can be imagined by us lowly mortals, which makes it the natural limitation of what we can conceive in terms of dimensions.

The existence of these additional six dimensions which we cannot perceive is necessary for String Theory in order for there to be consistency in nature. The fact that we can perceive only four dimensions of space can be explained by one of two mechanisms: either the extra dimensions are compactified on a very small scale, or else our world may live on a 3-dimensional submanifold corresponding to a brane, on which all known particles besides gravity would be restricted (aka. brane theory).

he existence of extra dimensions is explained using the Calabi-Yau manifold, in which all the intrinsic properties of elementary particles are hidden. Credit: A Hanson

If the extra dimensions are compactified, then the extra six dimensions must be in the form of a Calabi–Yau manifold (shown above). While imperceptible as far as our senses are concerned, they would have governed the formation of the universe from the very beginning. Hence why scientists believe that peering back through time, using telescopes to spot light from the early universe (i.e. billions of years ago), they might be able to see how the existence of these additional dimensions could have influenced the evolution of the cosmos.

Much like other candidates for a grand unifying theory – aka the Theory of Everything (TOE) – the belief that the universe is made up of ten dimensions (or more, depending on which model of string theory you use) is an attempt to reconcile the standard model of particle physics with the existence of gravity. In short, it is an attempt to explain how all known forces within our universe interact, and how other possible universes themselves might work.

For additional information, here's an article on Universe Today about parallel universes, and another on a parallel universe scientists thought they found that doesn't actually exist.

There are also some other great resources online. There is a great video that explains the ten dimensions in detail. You can also look at the PBS web site for the TV show Elegant universe. It has a great page on the ten dimensions.

You can also listen to Astronomy Cast. You might find episode 137 The Large Scale Structure of the Universe pretty interesting.


Election Day History, Trivia, and Fascinating Facts

In 2020, U.S. Election Day falls on Tuesday, November 3. How much do—and don’t—you know? Here is a short history of Election Day and the right to vote. Plus, we have some trivia, fascinating facts, and common questions & answers to quiz yourself as well as your family and friends.

To-day, alike are great and small,
The nameless and the known
My palace is the people’s hall,
The ballot-box, my throne!

–John Greenleaf Whittier, American poet (1807–92)

When Is U.S. Election Day 2020?

Dan izbora is always held on the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November.

In 2020, Election Day is Tuesday, November 3.

On this day, citizens cast ballots to select public officials—from local to national government.

  • Presidential elections are held every four years, in years divisible by four.
  • Elections to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate are held every two years.
  • Local officials can be voted into office any year that is designated by the state.

Bilješka: All states allow you to vote absentee (“vote by mail”), although some states require you to provide a reason, such as that you’ll be out of town or you’re disabled. In 2020, given the ongoing COVID -19 pandemic, many states have loosened restrictions on absentee voting. Check your state’s laws here. The majority of states also offer early voting in person prior to Election Day.

2020 Voting Resources

Voting is a fundamental part of the democratic process and must be accessible to all! Here are resources for Americans looking to vote:

    or Check Your Voter Registration Status
  • Learn about Early Voting and Absentee Voting (“voting by mail”)
  • Find out more about the election process in your state at your State’s Election Website

The Brief History of Election Day

On January 7, 1789, the electors were chosen for the first U.S. presidential election. (George Washington was elected president on February 4.)

By an act of Congress on January 23, 1845, the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November was designated Election Day for future presidential elections. Back then, we were more of an agricultural society and November was considered a good time for elections because the busy harvest season was coming to a close. Many country folks had to travel quite a long way to get to a polling station, so it made sense to hold elections on a Tuesday. This avoided religious holidays as well.

Before 1845, the states could hold presidential elections within a 34-day period and then send their electors to the Electoral College. However, this became problematic as communications and transportation evolved because states that voted earlier could influence states that voted later (not unlike earlier time zones versus later time zones today).

The first Election Day took place on November 7, 1848. Whig Party candidate Zachary Taylor won out over Democrat Lewis Cass and Free-Soil candidate (and former president) Martin Van Buren. Taylor’s running mate was Millard Fillmore, who became the nation’s 13th president on July 10, 1850, upon Taylor’s untimely death.

Read more about why elections are traditionally held in the fall in our article about the ancient Quarter-Days.

Election Day Cake!

Did you know that there is a such thing as an Election Day Cake? Often yeasted fruit cakes, Election Day cakes started in the 1600s and were especially popular around the time of American independence.

Try making it this year with our Election Day Cake recipe!

Election Day Questions and Answers

Here are some Almanac reader questions—with answers from your editors!

Question: Is Election Day a federal holiday?
Odgovor: Ne nije. However, Election Day has been declared a civic holiday by many states including Delaware, Hawaii, Kentucky, Louisiana, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, West Virginia, and the territory of Puerto Rico. It is usually a day that the state legislature declares as a non-working day (when government offices and the court systems are closed).

Question: When were women given the right to vote in the United States?
Odgovor: Women were given the right to vote on August 26, 1920, when the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. Formerly known as Woman Suffrage Day, August 26 is now recognized as “Women’s Equality Day.” Ratification came in Tennessee, where suffragist (Anitia) Lili Pollitzer, age 25, persuaded Tennessee state legislator Harry T. Burn, age 24, to cast the deciding vote. “I know that a mother’s advice is always safest for a boy to follow,” he said, “and my mother wanted me to vote for ratification.” The country’s 26 million voting-age women were enfranchised by this change in the Constitution. Longtime suffragist Carrie Chapman Catt summed up her experiences in the battle this way: “Never in the history of politics has there been such a nefarious lobby as labored to block the ratification.” Upon ratification, Catt founded the League of Women Voters, an organization now dedicated to providing impartial, in-depth information about candidates, platforms, and ballot issues.

Question: Which U.S. president has received the greatest number of electoral votes?
Odgovor: Ronald Reagan, in the 1984 election, won a whopping 525 out of 538 available electoral votes.

Question: Which U.S. president has received the greatest number of popular votes?
Odgovor: That distinction goes to Barack Obama, who received 69.5 million votes in the 2008 election.

Question: Can you explain the electoral college?
Odgovor: The U.S. Constitution decrees that a “body of electors” will choose the president and vice president of the country. These electors are appointed by each state, through varying methods depending upon the state, as decided by each state’s legislature. The number of electoral votes allotted to each state depends on the number of Senators and Representatives to which each state is entitled Congress has 100 Senators and 435 Representatives. Each state is allotted 1 electoral vote for each Senator (for a total of 2) and 1 electoral vote for each Representative. The number of Representatives each state has is based on its population. The District of Columbia is allotted 3 electoral votes. This yields a total of 538 electoral votes. Electors vote in their respective states in December. Most vote according to popular vote or to their pledge to their party (although in some states, they are not required to do so). In 48 states, the presidential candidate who receives a majority of the vote takes all of the state’s electoral votes. However, in Nebraska and Maine, the setup is different, and electoral votes can be split between candidates. Congress counts the electoral votes, now merely a formality, on January 6. The presidential candidate who receives a majority (270) of the 538 Electoral College votes wins the election.

Question: What were the symbols for the Republicans and Democrats before they were an elephant and a donkey?
Odgovor: Although Thomas Nast, a caricaturist and illustrator for Harper’s Weekly, created and made famous our current symbols for the parties—the Democratic donkey in 1870 and the Republican elephant in 1874—there was an earlier symbol for Democrats. During the election of 1840, between the Democrats and the Whigs (the Republican party as we know it didn’t exist until 1854), the Whigs derided a Democratic candidate for Congress in Indiana, Joseph Chapman, with the slogan “Crow, Chapman, Crow!” However, Chapman crowed so successfully that he won the seat (though the Whigs were triumphant elsewhere). In Chapman’s honor, the Democrats adopted the rooster as their symbol.

Question: Who is credited with saying, “Americans will go across an ocean to fight a war, but not across the street to vote”?
Odgovor: The full quote is, “A citizen of America will cross the ocean to fight for democracy, but won’t cross the street to vote in a national election.” It is credited to William E. (Bill) Vaughan, a 20th-century author and columnist.

The Right to Vote

  • February, 1870: The U.S. Congress passes and the states ratify the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granting African-American men the right to vote.
  • 1890: Wyoming was the first state to grant women the right to vote, followed by Colorado in 1893.
  • October 23, 1915: 25,000 women marched in NYC demanding the right to vote.
  • August, 1920: The Nineteenth Amendment was adopted, granting women from every state the right to vote. It was nicknamed the “Anthony” amendment in recognition of the lobbying efforts of suffragette Susan B. Anthony. The amendment was adopted just in time for the 1920 presidential election. See a full timeline of women’s suffrage.
  • March 29, 1961: Ratification of the 23rd amendment to the Constitution gave residents of Washington, D.C., the right to vote in presidential elections.
  • August, 1965: President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act to outlaw states’ discriminatory voting practices, especially with African Americans in the South.
  • July 1971: The 26th Amendment reduced the voting age in the United States from 21 to 18 years of age. The first 18-year-olds voted in the 1972 elections.
  • March, 1993: The “motor-voter” bill was signed by President Bill Clinton, allowing citizens to register to vote when applying for a driver’s license and ease voter registration.

Election Day Amusement

Here is an election-day palindrome for your amusement:

Rise to vote, sir.

Let Us Know

Do you think Election Day should be a holiday? Should it be kept on a Tuesday, or maybe moved to a weekend? Let us know what you think in the comments below!


Annual Holidays and Observances United Nations International Years

Each year, the United Nations chooses a few different topics, or themes that they want all the Countries around the World to focus on. 

  • International Year of Creative Economy for Sustainable Development
  • International Year of Fruits and Vegetables
  • International Year of Peach and Trust
  • International Year of Indigenous Languages
  • International Year of Moderation
  • International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements 
  • International Year of Crystallography
  • International Year of Family Farming
  • International Year of Small Island Developing States
  • International Year of Solidarity with the Palestinian People

Alternative Concert Group Presents

Tickets on sale online or at the box office.

At the Miller High Life Theatre, Milwaukee, WI.

Tickets on sale online or at the box office.

Tickets on sale online or at the box office.

At the UW-Stevens Point.

Tickets on sale online or at the box office.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Barrymore Theatre, Madison, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

Tickets on sale online, at the South Milwaukee Performing Arts Center box office or by phone at 414-766-5049.

At South Milwaukee Performing Arts Center, Milwaukee, WI.

Tickets on sale online, at the South Milwaukee Performing Arts Center box office or by phone at 414-766-5049.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Barrymore Theatre, Madison, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Wilson Theatre at Vogel Hall at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Milwaukee, WI.

Tickets on sale at the Marcus Center box office, all Ticketmaster outlets, Ticketmaster.com or 414-273- 7206.

At the Wilson Theatre at Vogel Hall at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Milwaukee, WI.

Tickets on sale at the Marcus Center box office, all Ticketmaster outlets, Ticketmaster.com or 414-273- 7206.

Tickets on sale at thegrandoshkosh.org, 920-424-2350 or at The Grand box office Monday-Friday 11:30am-5:00pm, Saturday 11:00am-2:00pm.

At The Grand, Oshkosh, WI.

Tickets on sale at thegrandoshkosh.org, 920-424-2350 or at The Grand box office Monday-Friday 11:30am-5:00pm, Saturday 11:00am-2:00pm.

Tickets on sale at meyertheatre.org, the Resch Center box office, online at ticketstaronline.com or by calling 800-895-0071.

At Meyer Theatre, Green Bay, WI

Tickets on sale at meyertheatre.org, the Resch Center box office, online at ticketstaronline.com or by calling 800-895-0071.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Barrymore Theatre, Madison, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

Tickets on sale at grandtheater.org or at The Grand Theater box office.

At the The Grand Theater, Wausau, WI.

Tickets on sale at grandtheater.org or at The Grand Theater box office.

Tickets on sale online, at the box office or by calling 920-683-2184.

At the Capitol Civic Centre, Manitowoc, WI.

Tickets on sale online, at the box office or by calling 920-683-2184.

Tickets on sale online, at the box office, or by calling 414-286-3663.

At Pabst Theater, Milwaukee, WI

Tickets on sale online, at the box office, or by calling 414-286-3663.

Tickets on sale online, the Resch Center box office, or by calling 800-895-0071.

At Meyer Theatre, Green Bay, WI

Tickets on sale online, the Resch Center box office, or by calling 800-895-0071.

At the Pablo Center for the Arts, Eau Claire, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Barrymore Theatre, Madison, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Barrymore Theatre, Madison, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Wilson Theatre at Vogel Hall at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Milwaukee, WI.

Tickets on sale at the Marcus Center box office, all Ticketmaster outlets, Ticketmaster.com or 414-273- 7206.

At the Wilson Theatre at Vogel Hall at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Milwaukee, WI.

Tickets on sale at the Marcus Center box office, all Ticketmaster outlets, Ticketmaster.com or 414-273- 7206.

At the Pablo Center for the Arts, Eau Claire, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

At the Barrymore Theatre, Madison, WI.

Tickets on sale at barrymorelive.com, or by phone at 608-241-8633 (Mon-Fri noon-5pm).

Tickets on sale online or at the box office.

At the UW-Stevens Point.

Tickets on sale online or at the box office.

At the Pablo Center for the Arts, Eau Claire, WI.

Tickets on sale at thegrandoshkosh.org, 920-424-2350 or at The Grand box office Monday-Friday 11:30am-5:00pm, Saturday 11:00am-2:00pm.

At The Grand, Oshkosh, WI.

Tickets on sale at thegrandoshkosh.org, 920-424-2350 or at The Grand box office Monday-Friday 11:30am-5:00pm, Saturday 11:00am-2:00pm.


Godišnje

Speaking of the greatest event of all time …Our annual public affairs summit runs through Saturday and you can register at any time — literally right up until the end.

I’ll be talking to stakeholders on both sides, including Castaneda and Martinek, about the project on Thursday night as part of Voice of San Diego’s annual public affairs summit, and welcome any questions for the panelists.

Monday saw the launch of Climate Week in New York—an annual network of environment-minded events, hosted across the city in the week that coincides with the UN general assembly.

Last week, Volkan Bozkir, president of the United Nations General Assembly, declared its 75th annual session open.

Add in India and other snakebite hot spots and the annual numbers rise to more than 2 million bites that need clinical treatment, according to the World Health Organization.

Russia depends on oil exports for almost 70 percent of its foreign-currency earnings and almost 50 percent of its annual budget.

Perhaps the most Jewish part of the 6th Annual Latke Festival was that the food went way faster than the liquor.

Film critic David Ehrlich continues his annual tradition of making a supercut of his favorite films of the year.

Yes, lawyers bill by the hour but are paid an annual salary—plus bonuses.

In 2006, Wahlberg participated in the Los Angeles Police-Celebrity Golf Tournament, an annual fundraiser.

The governor of the fortress was provided with a safe residence in Egypt, and an annual pension of 75,000 piasters.

Isaacson did not visit Mrs. Chepstow again before he left London for his annual holiday.

In former years, Korea had paid an annual tribute or tax to China, but for some time it had been held back by this king.

Whether his annual expenditure be fifty pounds or fifty thousand, he tries to get his money's worth.

If this stinking quartet takes it into its head to levy annual blackmail, where is the money coming from?


Pogledajte video: Pljevaljska hronika 2014 (Maj 2022).