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Michelangelo

Michelangelo


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Michelangelo (1475-1564 CE) je bio italijanski umjetnik, arhitekta i pjesnik, koji se smatra jednim od najvećih i najutjecajnijih od svih renesansnih ličnosti. Njegova najslavnija djela, iz portfelja remek -djela od kojih zastaje dah, uključuju strop Sikstinske kapele u Rimu i divovsku mramornu statuu Davida koja se nalazi u Galleria dell'Accademia u Firenci.

Njegovi suvremenici smatrali su ga najvećim živim umjetnicima, a Michelangelo je imao veliki utjecaj na umjetničke stilove visoke renesanse, manirizma i baroka. I danas djela velikog čovjeka nastavljaju izazivati ​​ljubitelje umjetnosti širom svijeta osjećaje koje je izričito namjeravao proizvesti u svoj svojoj umjetnosti bez obzira na medij: divljenje formi i pokretu, iznenađenje i strahopoštovanje.

Rani život

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti rođen je 1475. godine u Capreseu, malom gradu u blizini Firence u Italiji. Za razliku od mnogih drugih poznatih umjetnika, Michelangelo je rođen u prosperitetnoj porodici. Kad je navršio 13 godina, poslan je na studij u Firencu kod slavnog freskopisca Domenica Ghirlandaia (oko 1449-1494 CE). Mladi umjetnik proveo je dvije godine kao Ghirlandaiov šegrt, ali je posjetio i mnoge crkve u gradu, proučavajući njihova umjetnička djela i izrađujući skice. Michelangelov veliki prelom dogodio se kada je njegov rad primijetio Lorenzo de Medici (1449-1492 CE), poglavar velike firentinske porodice tog imena i velikodušni zaštitnik umjetnosti. Upravo u Lorencovom impresivnom vrtu skulptura mladi je umjetnik iz prve ruke mogao proučavati djela velikih vajara iz antike, posebno rimskih sarkofaga ukrašenih u visokom reljefu, te učiti od umjetničkog kustosa vrta i uglednog vajara Bertolda di Giovannija (oko 1420. -1491 CE). Michelangelo će kasnije stvoriti mramornu grobnicu Lorenza de Medicija u porodičnoj crkvi San Lorenzo u Firenci.

Michelangelo je nastojao stvoriti svijet ljepši nego što je stvarno postojao.

Utjecaj ovih klasičnih djela na Michelangela očit je u iskrivljenim figurama u jednom od njegovih prvih velikih remek -djela, reljefnoj skulpturi poznatoj kao Bitka kod Kentaura i Lapita koji je sada izložen u Casa Buonarroti u Firenci. Umjetnikova zaokupljenost antikom u prvoj polovici njegove karijere dovoljno je vidljiva u njegovom radu, ali i u njegovim brojnim namjernim pokušajima da skulpture predstavi kao zapravo drevne. 1496. godine, na primjer, izradio je Spavajući Kupidon (sada izgubljeno) koje je namjerno odležao kako bi izgledalo kao autentično drevno djelo i koje je uspješno prodao kardinalu Raffaeleu Riariu.

Michelangelo se tada već fokusirao na tehniku ​​poznatu kao disegno gdje se umjetnik koncentrirao prije svega u pokušaju da uhvati oblik, muskulaturu i poze ljudskog tijela skicama na papiru klasičnih djela koja su zatim pretvorena u potpuno novu skulpturu ili sliku. Michelangelo je ovoj umjetničkoj baštini dodao i strast prema izradi svojih figura u dramatičnim pozama i to u monumentalnim razmjerima, što možda objašnjava njegovu sklonost skulpturi u odnosu na druge medije. Kombinacija realističkog izvođenja, veličine i dinamike postala bi obilježje majstorovih djela u svim medijima dok je nastojao stvoriti svijet ljepši nego što je u stvarnosti postojao.

Love History?

Prijavite se za naš besplatni tjedni bilten putem e -pošte!

Mikelanđelova velika djela govorila su sama za sebe, a oni koji ih nisu mogli lično vidjeti mogli su im se diviti ili proučavati u brojnim gravurama.

Vodeći renesansni umjetnik

Godine 1496. Michelangelo se preselio u Rim, što mu je dalo još više mogućnosti za proučavanje primjera klasične umjetnosti i arhitekture. U tom je razdoblju stvorio još jedno remek -djelo Pietà (vidi dole). Povratak u Firencu c. 1500. godine nove ere, umjetnik je sada bio dobro etabliran i bilo mu je naloženo da stvori lik za ništa manje mjesto od katedrale u Firenci. Michelangelo je dobio masivni blok visoko cijenjenog carrarskog mramora s kojim nitko nije znao što učiniti. Rezultat je bilo još jedno remek -djelo, vjerovatno najpoznatija umjetnikova skulptura od svih: David (vidi dole). Sljedeći je bio chef-d'oeuvre koji je koristio boje, pokazujući da Michelangelo nikako nije ograničen na skulpturu. Sveta porodica naslikan je 1503. godine i djelo se sada nalazi u galeriji Uffizi u Firenci. Zatim je uslijedio intrigantan susret velikih umova kada su Michelangelo i Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519. N. E.) Radili na freskama u Vijećnici u Firenci. Predmet Michelangelovog rada bila je bitka kod Cascine, ali je, poput Leonardovih napora ovdje, ostala nedovršena. Može se samo nagađati šta je svaki veliki umjetnik u ovom trenutku mogao naučiti od drugog.

Michelangelo se vratio u Rim kako bi radio na grobu pape Julija II (r. 1503. -1513. N. E.), A tada mu je dato možda i najzahtjevnija narudžba - da oslika strop Sikstinske kapele u Vatikanu (vidi dolje). Uprkos tome što je radio uglavnom sam i vrlo često u neugodnom položaju na vrhu skele, plafon je završen izuzetno brzo. Završeno 1512. godine naše ere, djelo se možda nije svidjelo svima u Crkvi, ali njegova središnja vizija Boga među oblacima koji se pružaju da dotaknu Adamov prst postala je jedna od naj reproduciranijih slika svih vremena.

Michelangelo će nastaviti vajati i, mnogo rjeđe, slikati do kraja života. Nastavio je pisati svoje cijenjene sonete koji su često bili posvećeni pjesnikinji Vittoriji Colonni (1490.-1547. N. E.), Iako su mnogi ispisani na poleđini skica i računa. U ovom primjeru, Sonet 151 (oko 1538-1544. n. e.), umjetnik poredi neuspjeh umjetnosti da spriječi smrt sa potragom za pravom ljubavlju:

Čak ni najbolji umjetnici nemaju koncepciju

koje jedan mramorni blok ne sadrži

unutar svog viška, a to se samo postiže

Bol od kojeg bježim i radost kojoj se nadam

Slično su skriveni u vama, draga damo,

uzvišen i božanski; ali, na moju smrtnu štetu,

moja umjetnost daje rezultate obrnuto od onoga što želim.

Ljubav se, dakle, ne može kriviti za moju bol,

niti vaša ljepota, vaša tvrdoća ili vaš prezir,

ni bogatstvo, ni moja sudbina, ni šansa,

ako u svom srcu držite i smrt i milost

u isto vrijeme, i moja pamet, iako gori,

ne može iz toga izvući ništa osim smrti.

(Paoletti, 404)

Bilo je i mnogo važnih arhitektonskih projekata, kao što su Laurentian Library, San Lorenzo, Firenca (1525 CE) sa svojom čitaonicom dugom 46 metara (150 stopa), trijumfalnom kombinacijom estetike i funkcije. Drugi projekti su uključivali novoizgrađeno Kapitolsko brdo u Rimu (započeto 1544. godine), uzdižuću kupolu bazilike sv. Medici grobna kapela u Firenci. Prikladno, tokom 16. stoljeća naše ere, kapela Medici postala je mjesto koje često posjećuju ambiciozni umjetnici koji su došli da se dive i nauče od jedinstvene i vizionarske kombinacije arhitekture i skulpture ovog majstora umjetnosti. Michelangelo je umro 18. februara 1564. godine u Rimu i sahranjen je uz mnogo ceremonija u bazilici Santa Croce u Firenci.

Ugled i naslijeđe

Veliki umjetnik je i sam zarobljen u nekoliko sačuvanih umjetničkih djela. Jedan upečatljiv primjer je bronzana bista njegovog sunarodnjaka Danielea da Volterre (1509.-1566. N. E.), Koja je stvorila c. 1564. godine, sada živi u Firenci Bargello. Skulptura je realistična i prikazuje bradatog Michelangela s brojnim borama i s blago spljoštenim nosom koji je nosio otkad ga je umjetnik Pietro Torrigiano (1472.-1528. N. E.) Slomio dok su bili mladi (Torrigiano je izgnan iz Firence kao posljedica toga ).

Detaljniji zapis o Michelangelu sačuvan je u dvije biografije koje su za života umjetnika napisali Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574 CE) i Ascanio Condivi (1525-1574 CE). Toskanski umjetnik Vasari završio je svoj rad Životi najizvrsnijih talijanskih arhitekata, slikara i kipara 1550. godine, a zatim opsežno revidirao i proširio rad 1568. godine. Povijest je monumentalni zapis renesansnih umjetnika, njihovih djela i anegdotskih priča povezanih s njima, pa se Vasari smatra jednim od pionira povijesti umjetnosti. Kolega italijanski umjetnik Condivi u međuvremenu je bio Michelangelov učenik u Rimu i napisao je svoju Život Mikelanđela 1553. godine, djelo koje je nadzirao sam veliki majstor (što možda objašnjava brojne izmišljene ili pretjerane elemente).

Ove dvije biografije pomogle su Michelangelu da stekne reputaciju žive legende jer su kolege umjetnici prepoznali njegov genij i doprinos oživljavanju umjetnosti tokom renesanse. Naravno, Michelangelova velika djela govorila su sama za sebe, a oni koji ih nisu mogli vidjeti osobno mogli su im se diviti ili ih proučavati u mnogim gravurama koje su bile distribuirane po cijeloj Europi. Njegova slava otišla je i van Evrope. Sultan Osmanskog carstva Bajazit II (r. 1481-1512. N. E.) Čuo je za umjetnikove vještine i bez uspjeha ga pozvao na svoj dvor. Michelangelova djela su se čak prikupljala, posebno u Francuskoj. Ukratko, Michelangelo se nije smatrao ni manje ni više nego božanskim - izrazom koji se često koristio za umjetnika tokom njegovog života - i posjedovaocem izuzetne umjetničke moći, što su njegovi savremenici nazivali terrabilità. Svjetlo koje je veliki čovjek bacio na zapadnu umjetnost i arhitekturu nastavilo je svijetliti dugo nakon njegove smrti, a njegovo djelo je imalo poseban utjecaj na razvoj manirizma i kasnijeg baroknog stila.

Remek -djela

Pietà

The Pietà je prikaz u mramoru Djevice Marije koja tuguje nad tijelom Isusa Krista koje joj počiva preko krila. Završeno između 1497. i 1500. godine nove ere, djelo je naručio francuski kardinal za svoju grobnicu u kapeli u Rimu. Sa visinom od 1,74 metra (5 ft. 8 inča), sada se nalazi u Bazilici Svetog Petra. Djelo kombinira sve aspekte kiparske umjetnosti: hiperrealistički prikaz ljudskog tijela, složene nabore draperije, spokojno i kontemplativno Marijino lice, tromo Isusovo tijelo i kompoziciju koja podsjeća na sjeverne kipove, ali nudi nešto što do sada nije viđeno u italijanskoj umetnosti. Da je Michelangelo bio izuzetno zadovoljan rezultatom, svjedoči anegdota da je naknadno dodao svoj potpis nakon što je suparnički umjetnik tvrdio da je njegov tvorac.

David

Kao što je gore spomenuto, Michelangelova ponuda katedrali u Firenci bila je mramorna skulptura biblijskog kralja Davida koji je u mladosti slavno ubio problematičnog diva Golijata. Lik je mnogo veći od prirodne veličine - visok oko 5,20 metara (17 stopa) - i toliko velik da se nije mogao postaviti na krov katedrale kako je predviđeno, već je umjesto toga stajao na okrenutom trgu. Michelangelo je dobio oko 400 florina za posao koji je započeo 1501. godine, a završio 1504. godine. David sada stoji u galeriji Accademia u Firenci, dok replika u punoj veličini stoji na otvorenom u Palazzo della Signoria.

Figura je sada potpuno bijela, ali izvorno je imala tri pozlaćena elementa: oslonac panja, pojas od lišća i vijenac na glavi. Jedina identifikacija da je ovo Davidov lik je prebacivanje preko lijevog ramena figure. Nadalje, zrelost tijela za ono što bi zaista trebala biti mladost, zajedno s golotinjom figure, snažno podsjećaju na kolosalne statue iz davnine, posebno na Herkula. Ne može biti slučajno da se Herkul pojavio i na službenom pečatu grada Firence. Ovdje je, dakle, bila poruka u umjetnosti da se grad smatra jednakim, možda čak i boljim od bilo kojeg grada u antici. Michelangelo je očito otišao dalje od ograničenja klasične skulpture i stvorio figuru koja je opipljivo napeta, efekt koji je samo naglašen Davidovom nabranom obrvom i odlučnim pogledom.

Sikstinska kapela

Kao što je navedeno, Michelangelo je bio naručen za farbanje plafona Sikstinske kapele, zgrade koja je tek završena 1480. godine. Strop je jako naprsnuo 1504. godine i popravljen je. Ovo je, dakle, bila prilika da se kapelici doda već impresivno unutrašnje uređenje. Michelangelo nije bio daleko od želje za projektom koji će ga okupirati od 1508. do 1512. godine - i bilo je čestih žestokih svađa s Papom - ali danas se smatra jednim od njegovih potpisnih djela. Freske su obojene u vrlo svijetle boje, a kako bi pomogao gledatelju koji mora stajati nekoliko metara ispod, Michelangelo je upotrijebio tehniku ​​kontrastnih boja jedna do druge.

Cijeli strop pokriva površinu dimenzija 39 x 13,7 metara (128 x 45 stopa). Odvojene ploče prikazuju ciklus epizoda iz Biblije koje pripovijedaju o stvaranju do Noinog doba. Zanimljivo je da je stvaranje Eve središnji panel, a ne stvaranje Adama, iako je to jednostavno zato što su scene kronološke počevši od oltarskog zida. Postoji i sedam proroka, pet sibila i četiri ignudi koji nemaju nikakve veze s religijskim narativom, ali koji pokazuju Michelangelovu ljubav prema hrabro izvedenim figurama u dramatičnim pozama.

Posao je odmah postigao uspjeh kod gotovo svih koji su ga vidjeli, ali bilo je i negodovanja. Glavni prigovor bila je količina golotinje i prikaz genitalija u pregršt figura. Osim toga, Posljednji sud dio kapele, koji je Mikelanđelo dodao mnogo kasnije oltaru između 1536. i 1541. n. e., također nije bio dobro prihvaćen od strane nekih članova klera. Činjenica da Isus nije imao svoju uobičajenu bradu i izgledao je nešto mlađe nego inače bile su posebna svađa. Umjetnikovo razumijevanje esencijalne teologije ili možda njegova nezainteresiranost za njega jer je bio poznat po svojoj pobožnosti, a pojava još više genitalija dovela je do toga da su neki klerici otišli toliko daleko da su djelo proglasili herezom. Bilo je čak i poziva da se uništi. Srećom po potomstvo, usvojena je umjerenija strategija pokrivanja uvredljivih golih elemenata. Zadatak retuširanja fresaka dobio je Daniele da Volterra, pa je ovaj umjetnik posljedično dobio prilično nesretan nadimak Il Braghettone ili 'proizvođač pantalona'.

Mojsije

Kao što je spomenuto, Michelangela je naručio Julije II 1505. godine prije Krista da dizajnira impozantnu grobnicu za poglavara Rimske crkve. Počevši od papira kao grandiozan spomenik, grobnica je konačno završena 1547. godine nakon napuštanja mnogih planiranih ekstravagancija. Jedan od preživjelih je sjedeća Mojsijeva statua koju je isklesao Michelangelo, a na kojoj se nalazi biblijska figura koja drži štap i navlači impresivno dugu bradu, očigledno kako bi pokazala strahopoštovanje prema Bogu. Kip je trebao biti viđen odozdo, pa je Michelangelo uključio nekoliko optičkih korekcija. Ova figura, visoka 2,35 metara (7 ft. 9 inča) u visinu, dovršena je oko 1520. godine i nalazi se u crkvi San Pietro in Vincoli u Rimu.


Bitka kod Kentaura (Michelangelo)

Bitka kod Kentaura je reljef talijanskog renesansnog umjetnika Michelangela, nastao oko 1492. To je posljednje Michelangelovo djelo nastalo pod patronatom Lorenza de 'Medicija, koji je umro ubrzo nakon završetka. Nadahnuta klasičnim reljefom koji je stvorio Bertoldo di Giovanni, mramorna skulptura prikazuje mitsku bitku između Lapita i Kentaura. Popularna tema umjetnosti u staroj Grčkoj, priču je Michelangelu predložio klasični učenjak i pjesnik Poliziano. Skulptura je izložena u Casa Buonarroti u Firenci, Italija.

Bitka kod Kentaura
UmjetnikMichelangelo
Godinac. 1492
TipMramor
Dimenzije84,5 cm × 90,5 cm (33,3 × 35,6 inča)
LocationCasa Buonarroti

Bitka kod Kentaura bila izvanredna skulptura na nekoliko načina, koja je predskazala Michelangelovo buduće skulptorsko usmjerenje. Michelangelo je odstupio od tadašnje prakse rada na diskretnoj ravni kako bi radio višedimenzionalno. To je ujedno bila prva Michelangelova skulptura nastala bez upotrebe bušilice s pramcem i prva skulptura koja je dostigla takvo stanje završetka s oznakama dlijeta subbia ostavljenih da stoje kao završna površina. Bilo da je namjerno ostavljeno nedovršeno ili ne, djelo je iz tog razloga značajno u tradiciji "non finito" tehnike vajanja. Michelangelo ga je smatrao najboljim od svojih ranih djela i vizualnim podsjetnikom zašto je trebao usmjeriti svoje napore na skulpturu.


Michelangelo - Historija

David jedna je od najizvrsnijih renesansnih skulptura nastalih ranih 1500 -ih. Ovo poznato umjetničko djelo stvorio je Michelangelo, poznati talijanski umjetnik. Kip je visok 5,17 metara i predstavlja mramornu figuru biblijskog heroja po imenu David. Ovaj mladić bio je i najčešći predmet renesansne umjetnosti, posebno u Firenci.

Izdvajamo

Skulptura je prvobitno bila zamišljena kao kip proroka koji je bio postavljen na liniji krova istočnog dijela Firence. Nadalje, postavljen je na javnom trgu u Palazzo della Signoria, koji je bio centar građanske vlade Firence. Zbog hrabre prirode ovog biblijskog heroja, na kraju je postao simbol odbrane građanskih sloboda prikazanih u Firentinskoj Republici.

Umjetničko djelo znatno se razlikuje od prethodnih kipova drugih poznatih umjetnika poput Verrocchia i Donatella. David Michelangela prikazao je mladog Davida prije nego što je krenuo u bitku s moćnim Golijatom. Stoga je lice figure#8217 izgledalo napeto i spremno za borbu umjesto pobjede zbog poraza neprijatelja.

Karakteristike

Umjetničko djelo Michelangela#8217 njegovo je tumačenje tipične starogrčke teme herojske biblijske figure. Odlikuje poza contrapposto, koja je karakterističan aspekt antičkih skulptura. Hrabri David stoji napeto, s jednom nogom opuštenom, dok drugom drži ukupnu tjelesnu težinu. Zbog toga njegova ramena i bokovi miruju pod suprotnim kutom. Štaviše, Davidova glava se okreće lijevo, a na leđima nosi remen. Uz sve ove značajke, mnogi ljudi smatraju skulpturu simbolom mladenačke ljepote i ljudske snage.

Kip je takođe prilično velik, u poređenju sa savremenicima umetnika u to doba. Zapravo, većina umjetnika smatra da je statua čudesna, jer je Michelangelo uspio oživjeti poznatu ličnost koja je već bila mrtva. Iako su u povijesti postojali brojni kolosalni kipovi, David autora Michelangela ostao je jedan od najboljih i najupečatljivijih.

Također je važno napomenuti da su se neke karakteristike ovog kipa činile prilično velike, posebno ruke i glava. Međutim, umjetnik je to učinio namjerno jer je kip trebao biti postavljen na krovu katedrale. Stoga je morao pronaći način da naglasi određene dijelove koji bi ih učinili vidljivim gledano odozdo.

Dodatni detalji

Ova figura izgleda prilično vitko sprijeda prema natrag u usporedbi s visinom. Prema znanstvenicima, to može biti uzrokovano radom na bloku čak i prije nego što ga je umjetnik počeo klesati. Osim toga, kip se smatrao političkom slikom prije nego što je odlučio raditi na njemu.

Očigledno, David je dugo bio omiljena politička slika u cijeloj Firenci, jer je nekoliko umjetničkih djela s likom biblijskog heroja naručeno na većini značajnih lokacija u gradu.

Konzervacija i očuvanje

1991. stopalo kipa je teško oštećeno kada ga je poremećeni muškarac razbio čekićem. Na osnovu prikupljenih uzoraka iz tog incidenta, naučnici su uspjeli otkriti da je mramor dobiven iz kamenoloma Miseglia's Fantiscritti, koji se nalazio u jednoj od malih dolina Carrare#8217. S propadanjem mramora, kip je prošao svoje prvo veliko čišćenje, od 2003. do 2004. Četiri godine nakon toga, postojali su planovi za izolaciju skulpture od vibracija uzrokovanih koracima turista, kako bi se spriječilo dalje i ozbiljnija oštećenja mramora.

Nekoliko reprodukcija statue napravljeno je godinama. Na primjer, gips ovog biblijskog heroja trenutno je izložen u muzeju Victoria i Albert. Međutim, ova statua ima gipsani smokvin list, koji je nastao kada je kraljica Viktorija bila šokirana golotinjom kipa#8217. Gipsani smokvin list obješen je na figuru pomoću dvije kuke, prije bilo kakvih kraljevskih posjeta.

U 20. stoljeću skulptura je postala kultni izraz za gradsku kulturu. Kip se također često reproducirao, poput imitacije mramora od stakloplastike i gipsa, koji su simbolizirali ambijent profinjenosti i kulture u različitim okruženjima, poput maketa željeznica, kockarnica, kockarnica i odmarališta. Stoga je umjetničko djelo zaista najbolje u povijesti zbog svoje velike veličine, zanimljivih detalja i karakteristika.


Naslijeđe i utjecaj Michelangela

Za potomke, Michelangelo je uvijek ostao jedna od male grupe najuzvišenijih umjetnika, za koje se osjećalo da izražavaju, poput Williama Shakespearea ili Ludwiga van Beethovena, tragično iskustvo čovječanstva s najvećom dubinom i univerzalnim opsegom.

Za razliku od velike slave umjetničkih djela, njihov vizualni utjecaj na kasniju umjetnost relativno je ograničen. To se ne može objasniti oklijevanjem u oponašanju umjetnosti jednostavno zato što je izgledala tako sjajno, jer su se umjetnici poput Raphaela smatrali jednako velikim, ali su u mnogo većoj mjeri korišteni kao izvori. Umjesto toga, može se dogoditi da je određena vrsta izraza povezana s Michelangelom, gotovo kozmičke veličine, bila inhibirajuća. Ograničeni utjecaj njegovog rada uključuje nekoliko slučajeva gotovo potpune ovisnosti, od kojih je najtalentiraniji umjetnik Daniele da Volterra. Inače, Michelangelo je tretiran kao model za određene ograničene aspekte svog rada. U 17. stoljeću smatrao se vrhunskim u anatomskom crtežu, ali manje hvaljen zbog širih elemenata svoje umjetnosti. Dok su maniristi koristili prostornu kompresiju koja je viđena u nekoliko njegovih djela, a kasnije i zmijolike poze njegove skulpture Victory, majstor iz 19. stoljeća Auguste Rodin iskoristio je učinak nedovršenih mramornih blokova. Neki barokni majstori iz 17. stoljeća možda ga najviše spominju, ali na načine koji su transformirani kako bi se isključila doslovna sličnost. Osim Gian Lorenza Berninija, slikar Peter Paul Rubens mogao bi najbolje pokazati upotrebljivost Michelangelovih kreacija za kasnijeg velikog umjetnika.


Italijanska linija je započela planiranje novih brodova 1958. Prvobitno su trebali biti nešto veći od SS -a Leonardo da Vinci, koji se tada gradio, ali mlazni zrakoplovi još nisu imali značajan utjecaj na područje Mediterana, a par pravih superlajnera činilo se poželjnim, kako s komercijalne tačke gledišta, tako i za zapošljavanje mornara i radnika u brodogradilištu. Odlučeno je da će novi brodovi biti najveći izgrađeni u Italiji od SS -a Rex 1932.

Odlučeno je da će smještaj na brodovima biti podijeljen u tri klase. Iz nekog razloga također je odlučeno da tri najniže putničke palube neće imati prozore. Tvrdilo se da je to učinilo brodski glatki oblik trupa, ali čini se da to nije istina jer su brodovi sličnog omjera dužine i širine izgrađeni s prozorima duž cijelog trupa. Bez obzira na nedostatke u njihovom početnom dizajnu, nove sestre su napredovale sa tehnološke strane. Najupečatljivija karakteristika na brodovima bili su njihovi torini s politehničkim dizajnom u Torinu, koji su se sastojali od zamršenih cjevovoda nalik rešetkama (umjesto tradicionalne ravne površine) za propuštanje vjetra kroz lijevak, i velike peraje za odbijanje dima na vrhu . Iako je kritiziran, dizajn lijevka pokazao se vrlo učinkovitim u sprječavanju dima sa stražnjih paluba. Odbojnici dima postali su popularni u dizajnu brodova tokom 1970 -ih i 1980 -ih, dok se ideja o propuštanju vjetra kroz lijevak ponovo pojavila krajem 1980 -ih i gotovo je norma u modernoj brodogradnji.

The Michelangelo Unutrašnjost su dizajnirali pomorski arhitekti Nino Zoncada, Vincenzo Monaco i Amedeo Luccichenti, koji su brodu dali manje avanturistički, tradicionalniji izgled od dizajnera njene sestre Raffaello.

Nakon nekoliko odlaganja, Michelangelo, pod zapovjedništvom višeg kapetana Maria Crepaza, konačno je bio spreman za službu u svibnju 1965. Tijekom morskih ispitivanja neke su vibracije otkrivene na krmi broda. Michelangelo je u suhom pristaništu u prosincu 1965. dobila nove propelere i neke izmjene na svom mjenjaču. Za vrijeme svojih popravaka popravljala je 31,59 čvorova, što ju je učinilo petim najbržim putničkim brodom na svijetu u to vrijeme.

U utorak ujutro, 12. aprila 1966. godine, pet dana nakon što je napustio Đenovu, Michelangelo, pod komandom višeg kapetana Giuseppea Solettija, pogođen je neobično velikim valom tokom oluje u srednjem Atlantiku, zbog čega se prednji dio njenog nadgrađa srušio, ili gurnuo unatrag, i ubio putnike dr. Werner Berndt iz Hamburg, Njemačka i John Steinbach iz Chicaga. Jedan član posade, Desiderio Ferrari, poginuo je nekoliko sati kasnije, a preko 50 ljudi je povrijeđeno. Među 1.495 putnika na ovom prijelazu bili su admiral Ernesto Giurati, predsjednik talijanske linije i bivši načelnik talijanske mornarice, talijanski načelnik protokola, Angelo Corrias, koji je krenuo na godišnji odmor u SAD, njemački romanopisac Günter Grass i njegov supruga Anna, kao i Bob Montana sa suprugom i četvero djece. Kada su nakon nesreće izvršeni popravci, aluminijsku oplatu u nadgradnji zamijenili su čelične ploče. Slična rekonstrukcija izvedena je na Raffaello i drugi savremeni brodovi poput SS -a Sjedinjene Države i SS Francuska. [1]

U maju 1972. godine, Alfred Hitchcock je putovao ovim brodom iz New Yorka na svoju projekciju Frenzy na filmskom festivalu u Cannesu.

Tijekom sljedećih godina broj putnika u transatlantskoj trgovini stalno je opadao zbog konkurencije iz zraka, a sve je više brodova povučeno. The Michelangelo provela više vremena krstareći do toplijih voda, ali napravila je siromašan kruzer sa svojim kabinama bez prozora i rasporedom tri klase. Imala je velike lido palube koje su bile superiornije čak i od većine namjenski izgrađenih kruzera tog vremena, ali to nije bilo dovoljno da se nadomjeste nedostaci broda, a Italian Line nije imala dovoljno sredstava za obnovu broda kako bi bila upotrebljivija krstarica. Osim toga, smatralo se da je prema tadašnjim standardima prevelika da bi bila kruzer.

Italijanski vodeći SS Michelangelo zadnji put prešao Atlantik u julu 1975. godine, pod komandom višeg kapetana Claudija Cosulicha. Nakon toga je položena u La Speziu zajedno sa svojom sestrom. Nekoliko kupaca (uključujući Knuta Klostera iz Norwegian Cruise Linea) pregledalo je brodove, ali ih nije htjelo kupiti zbog troškova potrebnih za njihovu modernizaciju prema standardima krstarenja. Postojao je jedan ozbiljan kupac, Home Lines, koji je želio kupiti brodove i držati ih pod talijanskom zastavom za krstarenje Karibima. Talijanska linija je odbila prodati sestre, navodno jer su smatrale da bi držanje talijanske zastave povezalo "sramotne gubitnike novca" s njima.

1976. godine pronađen je kupac koji se složio sa uslovima koje traži Italian Line. Iranski šah kupio je brodove koji će se koristiti kao plutajuće barake. Brodovi koji su koštali svaki po 45 miliona dolara sada su prodani po cijeni od 2 miliona dolara po brodu. The Michelangelo završila u Bandar Abbasu gdje je trebala provesti sljedećih petnaest godina.

1978. godine napravljeni su planovi da se ona rekonstruiše kao luksuzni kruzer Scià Reza il Grande (u čast Rezā Shāha). Međutim, stručni tim poslan iz Italije kako bi pregledao brod došao je do zaključka da je bio previše pogoršan da bi obnovu učinila održivom opcijom. Slični planovi napravljeni su 1983. godine, ali ni oni nisu uspjeli.

Konačno, u junu 1991. rashodovana je u brodogradilištu Gadani u Pakistanu. [2]


Michelangelo - Biografija i naslijeđe

Michelangelo je rođen od Leonarda di Buonarrote i Francesce di Neri del Miniato di Siena, bankarske porodice srednje klase u malom selu Caprese, u blizini Arezza, u Toskani. Nesretna i dugotrajna bolest njegove majke prisilila je njegovog oca da stavi sina na čuvanje dadilji. Dadilin suprug bio je kamenorezac i radio je u kamenolomu mramora svog oca.

Kad je Michelangelo imao šest godina, majka mu je umrla, a on je nastavio živjeti s parom, a legenda kaže da bi ova nekonvencionalna situacija iz djetinjstva postavila temelj za njegovu kasniju ljubavnu vezu s mramorom.

Kad je imao 13 godina, ocu je bilo jasno da Michelangelo nema sposobnosti za porodični poziv. Mladić je poslan u šegrte u poznati studio Domenica Ghirlandaia. Nakon samo godinu dana u studiju, Lorenzo de 'Medici iz poznate firentinske porodice pokroviteljstva umjetnosti zatražio je od Ghirlandaia dvoje njegovih najboljih učenika. Michelangelo je, zajedno s Francescom Granaccijem, izabran za pohađanje Humanističke akademije porodice Medici. Bilo je to uspješno vrijeme u renesansnoj Firenci kada su umjetnike ohrabrivali da proučavaju humanističke znanosti, naglašavajući svoja stvaralačka nastojanja znanjem o starogrčkoj i rimskoj umjetnosti i filozofiji. Umjetnost je odstupala od gotičke ikonografije i predanog rada i evoluirala u veliko slavlje čovjeka i njegove važnosti u svijetu. Michelangelo je studirao kod poznatog vajara Bertolda di Giovannija, stekavši izloženost velikim klasičnim skulpturama u palači Lorenzo.

Za to vrijeme, Michelangelo je dobio dozvolu od Katoličke crkve Santo Spirito da proučava leševe u njihovoj bolnici kako bi stekao razumijevanje anatomije. Zauzvrat im je izrezbario drveni križ. Njegova sposobnost da precizno prikaže realističan mišićni ton tijela rezultat je ovog ranog obrazovanja što dokazuju dvije skulpture koje su preživjele iz tog vremena Madona sjedi na stepenici (1491) i Bitka kod Kentaura (1492).

Rana obuka i rad

Nakon smrti Lorenza di Medicija 1492. Michelangelo je ostao s relativnom sigurnošću u Firenci. No, kada je firentinski grad ušao u politička previranja, obitelj Medici je protjerana, a umjetnik se preselio u Bolognu. Upravo je u Bologni dobio nalog da završi rezbarenje groba sv. Dominika, što je uključivalo dodavanje statue sv. Petronija, klečećeg anđela sa svijećnjakom i sv. Prokulusa.

Michelangelo se vratio u Firencu 1494. nakon što je utihnula prijetnja od francuske invazije. Radio je na dvije statue, Sveti Jovan Krstitelj, i mali Kupidon. The Kupidon prodan je kardinalu Riariu iz San Giorgia, prošao je kao antička skulptura. Iako je bio ljut na prevaru, kardinal je bio dovoljno impresioniran Michelangelovim izradom da ga pozove u Rim na još jedno povjerenje. Za tu je komisiju Michelangelo stvorio Bahusov kip, koji je kardinal odbacio smatrajući da je politički neoprezno povezivati ​​se s poganskom golom figurom. Michelangelo was indignant - so much so that he later asked his biographer Condivi to deny the commission was from the Cardinal and instead to record it as a commission from his banker, Jacopo Galli. The artist's impetuous nature was already garnering him the reputation of being one who indignantly did what he wanted, oftentimes eschewing his patron's wishes or failing to complete work once started.

Michelangelo remained in Rome after completing the Bacchus, and in 1497 the French Ambassador, Cardinal Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas commissioned his Pietà for the chapel of the King of France in St Peter 's Basilica. The Pietà was to become one of Michelangelo's most famous carvings, which the 16th-century biographer Giorgio Vasari, described as something "nature is scarcely able to create in the flesh." His acuity with emotional expression and lifelike realism in the piece, garnered the artist much awe and attention.

Although his status as one of the period's most talented artists following the completion of the Pietà was secure, Michelangelo didn't receive any major commissions over the next two years. Financially, however this absence of work wasn't of much concern. Wealth didn't seem to affect the artist's lifestyle. As he would say to Condivi towards the end of his life, "However rich I may have been, I have always lived like a poor man."

In 1497, the puritanical monk Girolamo Savonarola became famous for his Bonfire of the Vanities, an event in which he and his supporters burned art and books in Florence, causing a cease to what had been a thriving period of the Renaissance. Michelangelo would have to wait until Savonarola's ousting in 1498 before returning to his beloved Florence.

In 1501, his most notable achievement was born through a commission from the Guild of Wool to complete an unfinished project begun by Agostino di Duccio some 40 years earlier. This project, finally completed in 1504, was a majestic, 17-foot tall nude statue of the biblical hero David. The work was a testament to the artist's unparalleled excellence at carving breathtakingly precise depictions of real life out of inanimate marble.

Several painting commissions followed after David's completion. In particular, Michelangelo's only known finished painting that has survived, Doni Tondo (The Holy Family) (1504).

During this time of the High Renaissance in Florence, rivalries between Michelangelo and his artist peers abounded, each fighting for prime commissions and revered social status as noted masters of their fields.

Leonardo da Vinci had quickly risen to fame and the competition between he and Michelangelo was legendary. In 1503, Piero Soderini, the lifetime Gonfalonier of Justice (senior civil servant akin to a Mayor), commissioned them both to paint two opposing walls of the Salone dei Cinquecento in the Palazzo Vecchio. Both paintings were never finished and are unfortunately lost. Leonardovih The Battle of Anghiari was painted over when Vasari later reconstructed the Palazzo. Michelangelo's work on The Battle of Cascina was interrupted in the preparatory drawing stage when Pope Julius II summoned him to Rome. Michelangelo was seduced by the flamboyant reputation of the patron Pope who was luring other artist peers such as Donato Bramante and Raphael to create exciting new projects. Never one to be bested by his rivals, he accepted the invitation.

Mature Period

In Rome, Michelangelo started work on the Pope's tomb, work that was to be completed within a five-year timeline. Yet, the artist would abandon the project after being cajoled by the Pope for another commission. The project was the painting of the Sistine Chapel's ceiling and rumor has it that Bramante, the architect in charge of rebuilding St. Peter's Basilica, was the one to convince the Pope that Michelangelo was the man for the job. Bramante was notoriously consumed by envy, and knowing that Michelangelo was better known for his sculptures rather than paintings, was certain that his rival would fail. He hoped this would cause the artist to fall out of popular favor. Michelangelo reluctantly accepted the commission.

Michelangelo would work on the Sistine Chapel for the next four years. It was a difficult job of extraordinary endurance, especially since the tempestuous artist had sacked all of his assistants save one who helped him mix paint. What resulted was a monumental work of great genius illustrating stories from the Old Testament including the Creation of the World and Noah and the Flood. Contrary to Bramante's hopes, it became (and remains) one of the greatest masterpieces of Western Art.

Another noted rival was the young 26-year-old Raphael who had burst upon the scene and was chosen in 1508 to paint a fresco in Pope Julius II's private library, a commission vied for by both Michelangelo and Leonardo. When Leonardo's health began to fail, Raphael became Michelangelo's greatest artistic adversary. Because of Raphael's acuity with depicting anatomy and his finesse for painting nudes, Michelangelo would often accuse him of copying his own work. Although influenced by Michelangelo, Raphael resented Michelangelo's animosity toward him. He responded by painting the artist with his traditional sulking face in the guise of Heraclitus in his famous fresco The School of Athens (1509-1511).

Following Pope Julius II's death in 1513 Michelangelo was commissioned by the new Pope Leo X to work on the façade of the Basilica San Lorenzo, the largest church in Florence. He spent the next three years on it before the project was cancelled due to lack of funds. In 1520, he received another commission for a Medici chapel in the Basilica of San Lorenzo on which he worked intermittently for the next twenty years. During those two decades, he would also complete an architectural commission for the Laurentian Library.

After the sack of Rome by Charles V in 1527, Florence was declared a republic and stayed under siege until 1530. Having worked prior to the siege for the defense of Florence, Michelangelo feared for his life and fled back to Rome. Despite his support for the republic, he was welcomed by Pope Clement and given a new contract for the tomb of Pope Julius II. It was also during this time he was commissioned to paint the fresco of the Last Judgement on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, a project that would take seven years.

Although a late bloomer relationship wise, at age 57, Michelangelo would establish the first of three notable friendships, sparking a prolific poetic output to add to his cadre of artistic talents. The first in 1532 was a 23-year-old Italian nobleman, Tommaso dei Cavalieri, who was not only the artist's young lover but remained a lifelong friend. The art historian, Howard Hibbard, quotes Michelangelo describing Tommaso as the "light of our century, paragon of all the world." The passionate affair provoked Michelangelo to produce a number of love poems so homoerotic in nature that his grandnephew, upon publishing the volume in 1623, changed the gender pronouns to disguise their homosexual context.

In 1536, Michelangelo found another lifelong object of affection, the widow, Vittoria Colonna, the Marquise of Pescara, who was also a poet. The majority of his prolific poetry is devoted to her, and his adoration continued until her death in 1547. He also gave her paintings and drawings, and one of the most beautiful to have survived is the black chalk drawing Pietà for Vittoria Colonna of 1546. She was the only woman who played a significant part in Michelangelo's life and their relationship is generally believed to have been platonic. During this period, he also worked on a number of architectural commissions including the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli and the Sforza Chapel in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, as well as the Capitoline Hill. He also received commissions for two frescos in the Cappella Paolina the Conversion of St Paul, and the Crucifixion of St Peter.

In 1540, Michelangelo met Cecchino dei Bracci, son of a wealthy Florentine banker, at the Court of Pope Paul III, who was only 12 years old. The epitaphs Michelangelo wrote following Cecchino's death four years later reveal the extent of their relationship, suggesting they were lovers. In particular one, which includes the graphic allusion, "Do yet attest for him how gracious I was in bed. When he embraced, and in what the soul doth live."

Late Period

It was Pope Julius II who, in 1504, proposed demolishing the old St Peter's Basilica and replacing it with the "grandest building in Christendom." Although the design by Donato Bramante had been selected in 1505, and foundations lain the following year, not much progress had been made since. By the time Michelangelo reluctantly took over this project from his noted rival in 1546 he was in his seventies, stating, "I undertake this only for the love of God and in honor of the Apostle."

Michelangelo worked continuously throughout the rest of his life on the Basilica. His most important contribution to the project was his work upon the dome in the eastern end of the Basilica. He combined the design ideas of all the prior architects who had given input on the work, which imagined a large dome comparable to Brunelleschi's famous dome in Florence, and coalesced them with his own grand visions. Although the dome was not finished until after his death, the base on which the dome was to be placed was completed, which meant the design of the dome could not be altered significantly in its completion. Still the largest church in the world, it remains a testament to his genius and his devotion. He continued to sculpt but did so privately for personal pleasure rather than work. He completed a number of Pietàs uključujući i Disposition (which he attempted to destroy), as well as his last, the Rondanini Pietà, on which he worked until the last weeks before his death.

It's been said that it takes 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to become world class in any field. Michelangelo epitomized this ideal as he started his career as a mere boy and continued working until his death at 88 years old.

His great love Tommaso remained with him until the end when Michelangelo died at home in Rome following a short illness in 1564. Per his wishes, his body was taken back to Florence and interred at the Basilica di Santa Croce.

The Legacy of Michelangelo

Along with Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, Michelangelo is regarded as one of the three giants of the Renaissance, and a major contributor to the Humanist movement. Humanity, in both its relationship to the divine and non-secular reality was central to his painting and sculpture. He was a master at depicting the body with such technical accuracy that marble was seemingly transformed into flesh and bone. His adeptness with human emotionality and expression inspired humility and veneration. The psychological insight and physical realism in his work had never been portrayed with such intensity before. Njegovo Pieta, David, i Sikstinska kapela have been maintained and preserved and continue to draw crowds of visitors from all over the world. His lifetime achievements give credence to the title commonly bestowed to him of Il Divino (The Divine).

Michelangelo's influence on other artists was profound and has continued from Raphael in his time to Rubens, through to Bernini, and the last great sculptor to follow his tradition of realism, Rodin.

His fame, established when he was in his early twenties, has continued to our time. As for his genius look to Galileo, who claimed he was born a day earlier, to coincide with the day Michelangelo died, alluding to the assertion that genius never dies.


How Did Michelangelo Change the World?

Michelangelo changed the world by helping people view art and artists differently. His art was remarkable because of this, the world began to recognize artists and their art as important additions to society.

Prior to Michelangelo, artists did not receive individual attention or notoriety for their work. They were seen as nothing more than journeymen.

Michelangelo changed the world's opinion of artists through his extraordinary works of art. With groundbreaking art, he created some of the most revered pieces known to man his attention to detail made these works remarkable. Michelangelo was best known as a sculptor, and his infamous David, with lifelike characteristics carved in marble, is still considered a masterpiece. Other notable sculptures include Pieta, Moses, and Madonna and Child.

Michelangelo was not just a sculptor he was an important painter and prolific architect as well. His paintings are considered some of the world's greatest showpieces. These paintings include the elaborate and detailed Sistine Chapel ceiling, which includes various painted elements to form a large scheme within the Chapel. As an architect, he designed the final plans for the St. Peter's Cathedral in the Vatican.

His work is considered the beginning of the High Renaissance, a period of time where the world came to recognize and appreciate the value of visual arts.


Accomplishments

  • His early studies of classical Greek and Roman sculpture, coupled with a study of cadavers, led Michelangelo to become an expert at anatomy. The musculature of his bodies is so authentically precise that they've been said to breathe upon sight.
  • Michelangelo's dexterity with carving an entire sculpture from a single block of marble remains unparalleled. He once said, "I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free." He was known as one who could conjure real life from stone.
  • The artist's feisty and tempestuous personality is legendary. He often abandoned projects midway through or played out his pride or defiance of conventionality through controversial means such as painting his own face on figures in his work, the faces of his enemies in mocking fashion, or unabashedly portraying sacred characters in the nude.
  • Michelangelo's most seminal pieces: the massive painting of the biblical narratives in the Sistine Chapel, the 17-foot tall testament to male perfection David, and the heartbreakingly genuine Pietà are considered some of the world's most genius works of art, drawing large numbers of tourists to this day.

Madonna of Bruges

The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo of the Virgin and Child.

Madonna and Child
UmjetnikMichelangelo
Godina1501–1504
TipMramor
Dimenzije200 cm (79 in)
LocationOnze Lieve Vrouwekerk, Bruges
Coordinates Coordinates: 51°12′17″N 3°13′28″E  /  51.20472°N 3.22444°E  / 51.20472 3.22444

Michelangelo's depiction of the Madonna and Child differs significantly from earlier representations of the same subject, which tended to feature a pious Virgin smiling down on an infant held in her arms. Instead, Jesus stands upright, almost unsupported, only loosely restrained by Mary's left hand, and appears to be about to step away from his mother. Meanwhile, Mary does not cling to her son or even look at him, but gazes down and away. It is believed the work was originally intended for an altar piece. If this is so, then it would have been displayed facing slightly to the right and looking down. The early 16th-century sculpture also displays the High Renaissance Pyramid style frequently seen in the works of Leonardo da Vinci during the late 1400s.

Madonna and Child shares certain similarities with Michelangelo's Pietà, which was completed shortly before – mainly, the chiaroscuro effect and movement of the drapery. The long, oval face of Mary is also reminiscent of the Pietà.

The work is also notable in that it was the only sculpture by Michelangelo to leave Italy during his lifetime. In 1504, it was bought by Giovanni and Alessandro Moscheroni (Mouscron), who were wealthy cloth merchants in Bruges, [1] then one of the leading commercial cities in Europe. The sculpture was sold for 4,000 florins.

The sculpture was removed twice from Belgium after its initial arrival. The first was in 1794 after French Revolutionaries had conquered the Austrian Netherlands during the French Revolutionary Wars the citizens of Bruges were ordered to ship it and several other valuable works of art to Paris. It was returned after Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo in 1815. The second removal was in 1944, during World War II, with the retreat of German soldiers, who smuggled the sculpture to Germany enveloped in mattresses in a Red Cross truck. [2] It was discovered a year later in Altaussee, Austria within a salt mine and again returned. It now sits in the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, Belgium. This is represented in the 2014 film The Monuments Men.


The Creation of Adam, by Michelangelo

Of all the marvelous images that crowd the immense complex of the Sistine Ceiling, Stvaranje Adama is undoubtedly the one which has most deeply impressed posterity. No wonder, for here we are given a single overwhelming vision of the sublimity of God and the potential nobility of man unprecedented and unrivaled in the entire history of visual art. No longer standing upon earth with closed eyes and mantle, the Lord floats through the heavens, His mantle widespread and bursting with angelic forms, and His calm gaze accompanying and reinforcing the movement of His mighty arm. He extends His forefinger, about to touch that of Adam, who reclines on the barren coast of earth, barely able as yet to lift his hand. The divine form is convex, explosive, paternal the human concave, receptive, and conspicuously impotent. The incipient, fecundating contact about to take place between the two index fingers has often been described as a spark or a current, a modern electrical metaphor doubtless foreign to the sixteenth century, but natural enough considering the river of life which seems about to flow into the waiting body.

Genesis tells how the Lord created Adam from the dust of the earth and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. This story is never illustrated literally in Renaissance art. Usually, as in Jacopo della Quercia's beautiful relief on the facade of the church of San Petronio in Bologna, which must have impressed the young Michelangelo deeply, the Creator stands on earth and blesses the already formed body of Adam, read together with the ground, since his name in Hebrew means earth. Michelangelo's completely new image seems to symbolize a still further idea - the instillation of divine power in humanity, which took place at the Incarnation. Given Cardinal Vigerio's reiterated insistence on the doctrine of the two Adams, and the position of the scene immediately after the barrier to the sanctuary, at the spot where the Annunciation customarily appeared, and after Ezekiel with his vision of the Virgin Birth, this would seem natural enough. The scene recalls the famous verses from Isaiah, "Who hath believed our report ? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ? For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground . . " invariably taken by theologians to foretell the Incarnation of Christ, shoot of Jesse's rod. Two striking visual elements make clear that this was one of the passages that actually recommended to Michelangelo by his probable adviser, Cardinal Vigerio. First, the mighty right arm of the Lord is revealed, naked as in no other of His appearances on the Sistine Ceiling, nor anywhere else, as far as I have been able to determine, in all of the Christian art prior to this time. (The left arm is clothed, at least to the elbow, by a white sleeve.) Second, directly under Adam, the arm of the veiled youth to the left above the Persian Sibyl projects into the scene - a matter that involved considerable advance planning - coming as close to touching Adam's thigh as the Creator does his finger. This hand holds a cornucopia bursting with Rovere leaves and acorns, appearing to grow from the dry ground, as full of potency as Adam ("ground") is empty of it. Such an image is characteristic not only of Michelangelo, who insofar as possible preferred to show male figures, including that of Christ, completely naked, but of the Roman High Renaissance and of Julius II himself, whose language as recorded by his astonished contemporaries overflows with boasts of his own physical strength and potency.


Michelangelo Artworks

This statue of Bacchus depicts the Roman god of wine precariously perched on a rock in a state of drunkenness. He wears a wreath of ivy and holds a goblet in one hand, brought up toward his lips for a drink. In the other hand, he holds a lion skin, which is a symbol for death derived from the myth of Hercules. From behind his left leg peeks a satyr, significant to the cult of Bacchus often representing a drunken, lusty, woodland deity.

The work, one of Michelangelo's earliest, caused much controversy. It was originally commissioned by Cardinal Riario and was inspired by a description of a lost bronze sculpture by the ancient sculptor Praxiteles. But when Riario saw the finished piece he found it inappropriate and rejected it. Michelangelo sold it to his banker Jacopo Galli instead.

Despite its colored past though, the piece is evidence of Michelangelo's early genius. His excellent knowledge of anatomy is seen in the androgynous figure's body which Vasari described as having the "the slenderness of a young man and the fleshy roundness of a woman." A high center of gravity lends the figure a sense of captured movement, which Michelangelo would later perfect even further for David. Although intended to mimic classical Greek sculpture and distressed toward an antique appearance, Michelangelo remained true to what in visual human terms it means to be drunk the unseemly swaying body was unlike any depiction of a god in classical Greek and Roman sculpture. Art historian Claire McCoy said of the sculpture, "Bacchus marked a moment when originality and imitation of the antique came together."

Marble - Museo del Bargello, Florence

Pietà

This was the first of a number of Pietàs Michelangelo worked on during his lifetime. It depicts the body of Jesus in the lap of his mother after the Crucifixion. This particular scene is one of the seven sorrows of Mary used in Catholic devotional prayers and depicts a key moment in her life foretold by the prophet, Simeon.

Cardinal Jean de Bilhères commissioned the work, stating that he wanted to acquire the most beautiful work of marble in Rome, one that no living artist could better. The 24-year-old Michelangelo answered this call, carving the work in two years out of a single block of marble.

Although the work continued a long tradition of devotional images used as aids for prayer, which was developed in Germany in the 1300s, the depiction was uniquely connotative of Italian Renaissance art of the time. Many artists were translating traditional religious narratives in a highly humanist vein blurring the boundaries between the divine and man by humanizing noted biblical figures and taking liberties with expression. Mary was a common subject, portrayed in myriad ways, and in this piece Michelangelo presented her not as a woman in her fifties, but as an unusually youthful beauty. As Michelangelo related to his biographer Ascanio Condivi, "Do you not know that chaste women stay fresh much more than those who are not chaste?"

Not only was Pietà the first depiction of the scene in marble, but Michelangelo also moved away from the depiction of the Virgin's suffering which was usually portrayed in Pietàs of the time, instead presenting her with a deep sense of maternal tenderness for her child. Christ too, shows little sign of his recent crucifixion with only slightly discernible small nail marks in his hands and the wound in his side. Rather than a dead Christ, he looks as if he is asleep in the arms of his mother as she waits for him to awake, symbolic of the resurrection.

A pyramidal structure signature to the time was also used: Mary's head at the top and then the gradual widening through her layered garments to the base. The draped clothing gives credence to Michelangelo's mastery of marble, as they retain a sense of flowing movement, far removed from the typical characteristic of stone.

This is the only sculpture Michelangelo ever signed. In a fiery fit of reaction to rumors circulating that the piece was made by one of his competitors, Cristoforo Solari, he carved his name across Mary's sash right between her breasts. He also split his name in two as Michael Angelus, which can be seen as a reference to the Archangel Michael - an egotistical move and one he would later regret. He swore to never again sign another piece and stayed true to his word.

The Pietà became famous immediately following its completion and was pivotal in contributing to Michelangelo's fame. Despite an attack in 1972, which damaged Mary's arm and face, it was restored and continues to inspire awe in visitors to this day.

Marble - St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome

David

This 17 foot tall statue depicts the prophet David, majestic and nude, with the slingshot he used to kill Goliath, slung victoriously over one shoulder.

The piece was commissioned by the Opera del Duomo for the Cathedral of Florence, a project that was originally meant to be a series of sculptures of prophets for the rooftop. Although David's familiarity stems from the classic religious tale, the statue became not only a rendition of the tale, but a symbol for the new Florentine Republic of its defiant independence from Medici rule.

Considered one of Michelangelo's great masterpieces. An exquisite example of his knowledge of anatomy can be seen in David's musculature, his strength emphasized through the classical contrapposto stance, with weight shifting onto his right leg. A sense of naturalism is conveyed in the way the body stands determined, a confident glare on the young man's face. The top half of the body was made slightly larger than the legs so that viewers glancing up at it or from afar would experience a more authentic perspective. The realism was seen as so powerful that Vasari praised it as Michelangelo's "miracle. to restore life to one who was dead."

During the Early Renaissance, Donatello had revived the classical nude as subject matter and made a David of his own. But Michelangelo's version, with its towering height, is unmistakably the most iconic version. As was customary to Michelangelo and his work, this statue was simultaneously revered and controversial.

The plaster cast of David now resides at the Victoria and Albert Museum. During visits by notable women such as Queen Victoria, a detachable plaster fig leaf was added, strategically placed atop the private parts.

On another occasion, a replica of David was offered to the municipality of Jerusalem to mark the 3,000th anniversary of King David's conquest of the city. Religious factions in Jerusalem urged that the gift be declined because the naked figure was considered pornographic. A fully clad replica of David by Andrea del Verrocchio, a Florentine contemporary of Michelangelo, was donated instead.

Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence - Marble

Doni Tondo (Holy Family)

Holy Family, the only finished panel painting by the artist to survive, was commissioned by Agnolo Doni for his marriage to Maddalena Strozzi, daughter of a powerful Tuscan family, which gives it its name. It portrays Jesus, Mary, Joseph, and an infant John the Baptist. The intimate tenderness of the figures governed by the father's loving gaze emphasizes the love of family and divine love, representing the cores of Christian faith. In contrast, the five nude males in the background symbolize pagans awaiting redemption. The round (tondo) form was customary for private commissions and Michelangelo designed the intricate gold carved wooden frame. The work is believed to be entirely by his hand.

We find many of the artist's influences in this painting, including Signorelli's Madonna. It is also said to have been influenced by Leonardo's The Virgin and Child with St Anne, a cartoon (full scale drawing) that Michelangelo saw while working on his David in 1501. The nude figures in the background are said to have been influenced by the ancient statue of Laocoön and His Sons (the Trojan priest) attributed to the Greek sculptors Agesander, Athenodoros and Polydorus, which was excavated in Rome in 1506 and publicly displayed in the Vatican.

Yet influences aside, the piece is distinctly Michelangelo, an example of his individualism, which was considered very avant-garde for the time. It was a significant shift from the serene, static rendition of figures depicted in classical Roman and Greek sculpture. Its twisting figures signify enormous energy and movement and the vibrant colors add to the majesty of the work, which were later used in his frescos in the Sistine Chapel. The soft modelling of the figures in the background with the focused details in the foreground gives this small painting great depth.

This painting is said to have laid the foundations of Mannerism which in contrast to the High Renaissance devotion to proportion and idealized beauty, preferred exaggeration and affectation rather than natural realism.

Tempera on panel - Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Stvaranje Adama

This legendary painting, part of the vast masterpiece that adorns the Sistine Chapel, shows Adam as a muscular classical nude, reclining on the left, as he extends his hand toward God who fills the right half of the painting. God rushes toward him, his haste conveyed by his white flaring robe and the energetic movements of his body. God is surrounded by angels and cherubim, all encased within a red cloud, while a feminine figure thought to be Eve or Sophia, symbol of wisdom, peers out with curious interest from underneath God's arm. Behind Adam, the green ledge upon which he lies, and the mountainous background create a strong diagonal, emphasizing the division between mortal he and heavenly God. As a result the viewer's eye is drawn to the hands of God and Adam, outlined in the central space, almost touching. Some have noted that the shape of the red cloud resembles the shape of the human brain, as if the artist meant to imply God's intent to infuse Adam with not merely animate life, but also the important gift of consciousness.

This was an innovative depiction of the creation of Adam. Contrary to traditional artworks, God is not shown as aloof and regal, separate and above mortal man. For Michelangelo, it was important to depict the all-powerful giver of life as one distinctly intimate with man, whom he created in his own image. This reflected the humanist ideals of man's essential place in the world and the connection to the divine. The bodies maintain the sculptural quality so reminiscent of his painting, carrying on the mastery of human anatomy signature to the High Renaissance.

Many subsequent artists have studied and attempted to imitate parts of the work for what art historians Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König called its "unprecedented invention." It is also one of the most parodied of Michelangelo's works, seen as humorous inspiration for The Creation of Muppet by artist James Hance in homage to Muppets creator Jim Henson used in the title sequence of the television arts program The Southbank Show borrowed from for the promotional poster for Steven Spielberg's movie ET and derived from for artist TasoShin's The Creation of Mario in homage to Miyamoto's contribution to Nintendo games.

Fresco - Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome

Mojsije

This grand epic sized statue depicts Moses seated regally to guard the tablets written with the Ten Commandments. His expression is stern, reflecting his anger at seeing his people worshipping the golden calf on his return from Mount Sinai.

Michelangelo's reputation following the sculpture of David reached Pope Julius II in Rome who commissioned the artist to come and work on his tomb. The ambitious artist initially proposed a project of over 40 figures. Yet In the final structure the central piece became this sculpture of Moses. Not only has he rendered the great prophet with a complex emotionality, his work on the fabric of Moses' clothes is noted for its exquisite perfection and look of authenticity. Again, he managed to craft a visage of seeming real life out of stone.

Pope Julius II famously interrupted Michelangelo's work on the tomb so that he could paint the Sistine Chapel. The final tomb wasn't finished until after the Pope's death in 1513, to be finally completed in 1545.

This sculpture has been at the center of much analysis, with Sigmund Freud having purportedly spent three weeks in 1913 observing the emotions expressed by the sculpture, concluding it was a supreme vision of self-control. Part of the controversy hinged around what appear to be horns protruding from Moses' head. While some see them as symbolic of his anguish, others believe them to hearken to a Latin mistranslation of the Bible in which instead of rays of light illuminating the radiance of Moses, he appears to be growing horns. This can stem from the Hebrew word Keren, which can mean 'radiated light' or 'grew horns.'

The work was eventually housed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome where Pope Julius II had been Cardinal.

Marble - San Pietro Vincoli, Rome

Posljednji sud

This fresco covers the entire altar wall of the Sistine Chapel and is one of the last pieces in the seminal building that was commissioned by Pope Clement VII when Michelangelo was 62. In it we see the Second Coming of Christ as he delivers the Last Judgement. The monumental work took five years to complete and consists of over 300 individual figures. The scene is one of harried action around the central figure of Christ, his hands raised to reveal the wounds of his Crucifixion. He looks down upon the souls of humans as they rise to their fates. To his left, the Virgin Mary glances toward the saved. On either side of Christ is John the Baptist and St Peter holding the keys to heaven. Many of the saints appear with examples of their sacrifices. Particularly interesting is St Bartholomew, martyred by the flaying of his skin, the face on which is said to be a self-portrait of Michelangelo. The saved souls rise from their graves on the left helped by angels. On the right, Charon the ferryman is shown bringing the damned to the gates of Hell. Minos, assuming the role Dante gave him in his Inferno, admits them to Hell. Another noteworthy group are the seven angels blowing trumpets illustrating the Book of Revelation's end of the world.

In usual Michelangelo fashion, the artist depicted the traditional scene with elements of controversy, particularly by rendering its subjects nude with extremely muscular anatomies. His rendition of a beardless Christ was unusual for the time, as was the use of figures from pagan mythology. Vasari reports that the Pope's Master of Ceremonies, Biagio da Cesena, called it a disgrace "that in so sacred a place there should have been depicted all those nude figures, exposing themselves so shamefully." Michelangelo, angry at the remark, is said to have painted Cesena's face onto Minos, judge of the underworld, with donkey's ears. Cesena complained to the Pope at being so ridiculed, but the Pope is said to have jokingly remarked that his jurisdiction did not extend to Hell.

materials - Fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City

The Deposition

This piece is not only sculpturally complex and indicative of Michelangelo's genius, but it carries layers of meaning and has sparked multiple interpretations. In it, we see Christ the moment after the Deposition, or being taken down from the cross of his crucifixion. He is falling into the arms of his mother, the Virgin Mary, and Mary Magdalene, whose presence in a work of such importance was highly unusual. Behind the trio is a hooded figure, which is said to be either Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus, both of whom were in attendance of the entombment of Christ, which would follow this event. Joseph would end up giving his tomb for Christ and Nicodemus would speak with Christ about the possibility of obtaining eternal life. Because Christ is seen falling into the arms of his mother, this piece is also often referred to as a pieta.

The multiple themes alluded to in this one piece: The Deposition, The Pieta, and The Entombment are further emphasized by the way Michelangelo carved it. Not only is it life like and intense with realism, it was also sculpted so that a person could walk around to observe and absorb each of the three narratives from different perspectives. The remarkable three-dimensionality allows the group to interact within each of the work's meanings.

The work is also a perfect example of Michelangelo's temperament and perfectionism. The process of making it was arduous. Vasari relates that the artist complained about the quality of the marble. Some suggest he had a problem with the way Christ's left leg originally draped over Nicodemus, worrying that some might interpret it in a sexual way, causing him to remove it. Perhaps Michelangelo was so particular with the piece because he was intending it for his own future tomb.

In 1555, Michelangelo attempted to destroy the piece causing further speculation about its meaning. There is a suggestion that the attempted destruction of the piece was because Nicodemus, by reference to his conversation with Christ about the need to be born again to find everlasting life, is associated with Martin Luther's Reformation. Michelangelo was known to be a secret sympathizer, which was dangerous even for someone as influential as he was. Perhaps a coincidence, but his Lutheran sympathies are given as one of the reasons why Pope Paul IV cancelled Michelangelo's pension in 1555. One of Michelangelo's biographers Giorgio Vasari also mentions that the face of Nicodemus is a self-portrait of Michelangelo, which may allude to his crisis of faith.

Although Michelangelo worked on this sculpture over a number of years he was unable to complete it and gave the unfinished piece to Francesco Bandini, a wealthy merchant, who commissioned Tiberio Calcagni, a friend of Michelangelo's, to finish it and repair the damage (all except for replacing Christ's left leg).

Marble - Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence

Pietà Rondanini

Pietà Rondanini is the last sculpture Michelangelo worked on in the weeks leading up to his death, finalizing a story that weaved through his many Pietas and now reflective of the artist's reckoning with his own mortality. The depiction of Christ has changed from his earlier St. Peter's Pieta in which Christ appeared asleep, through to his Deposition, where Christ's body was more lifeless, to now, where Christ is shown in the utter pain and suffering of death. His mother Mary is standing in this piece, an unusual rendition, as she struggles to hold up the body of her son while immersed in grief.

What's interesting about this work is that Michelangelo abandoned his usual perfection at carving the body even though he worked on it intermittently for over 12 years. It was a departure that so late in his prolific career signified the enduring genius of an artist whose confidence would allow him to try new things even when his fame would have allowed him to easily rest upon his laurels. The detached arm, the subtle sketched features of the face, and the way the figures almost blend into each other provide a more abstracted quality than was his norm, and all precursors of a minimalism that was yet to come in sculpture. The renowned sculptor Henry Moore later said of this piece, "This is the kind of quality you get in the work of old men who are really great. They can simplify, they can leave out. This Pietà is by someone who knows the whole thing so well he can use a chisel like someone else would use a pen."

This sculpture's importance was ignored for centuries, including its disappearance from public discourse until it was found in the possession of Marchese Rondanini in 1807. It has since excited many modern artists. The Italian artist Massimo Lippi is quoted as saying that modern and contemporary art began with this Pietà, and the South African painter, Marlene Dumas, based her Homage to Michelangelo (2012) on this work.


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