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Portret Lady Jane Grey

Portret Lady Jane Grey


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Portret Lady Jane Grey - Povijest


Pripisuje se Levina Teerlinc
Nepoznata dama, moguće Elizabeta I kao princeza, c. 1550
Yale centar za britansku umjetnost, New Haven (B1974.2.59)
Vellum zalijepljen za običan papir, kružni, 48 mm, promjera 1 7/8

Bilo bi u iskušenju pripisati ovo Hornebolteu jer je natpis tipičan za njegov stil, ali detaljno ispitivanje predmeta pokazalo bi da je to vjerovatno djelo Levine Teerlinc, učinjeno ubrzo nakon njenog dolaska u Englesku. Nacrt je mnogo slabiji od bilo čega kod Hornebolte -a, tretiranje tankih i prozirnih crta lica i sitnih ruku takođe su česta pojava u ženskim dadiljama Teerlinc & rsquos. I Teerlinc je bio pod utjecajem velikih slikara, a minijatura odražava rad majstora Johna, npr. Marija I, 1544.

Svi koji sjede za minijature dvorskih graničara dolaze iz usko povezanog kraljevskog kruga koji bi vjerovatno suzio identitet moguće sjediteljice sve do Marije I, Elizabete I kao princeze, ili jedne od njihovih rođaka, tri sestre Grey. Haljina je tipa koja se nosila između sredine 1540 -ih i ranih 1550 -ih. Mary I je 1547. bila prestara, a Lady Jane Gray samo deset. To ostavlja Elizabeth koja je 1551. imala osamnaest godina. Najraniji njen portret je poznata slika u Kraljevskoj zbirci koja je prikazuje između dvanaeste i četrnaeste godine c. 1542-1547. Nema više određenih portreta sve do minijatura Levine iz 1560 -ih, kada je kraljica bila u kasnim dvadesetima ili ranim tridesetima sa znatno promijenjenim izgledom i odjećom. Minijatura s Yalea prati sliku Kraljevske kolekcije, kao i lice potpuno razvijenog, teškog tinejdžera. Nosi vrlo važan dragulj sa a l & rsquoantique profilna glava, vjerovatno rimskog cara, u mlazu sa vijencem lovora i petljastim plaštom izrađenim u zlatu u koje su utaknute grančice žira i kravljeg lista.

U pozadini postoje brojni značajni gubici boje, ljuskanje i promjena boje. Osim toga, postoje manji gubici u kosi i na licima.

Iz bilješki o Levini Teerlinc:

1510/20 Rođen, jedno od djece Simona Bennincka, jednog od glavnih predstavnika škole iluminatora u Gent-Brugesu

1546 Primljena u službu Henrika VIII sa anuitetom od 40 funti godišnje, do tada se udala za Georgea Teerlinca

1551 Nalog za plaćanje Teerlincu za portret princeze Elizabete

1553 Poklanja Mariju I sa & ldquoa malom slikom Trynite & rdquo prvim u nizu novogodišnjih & rsquos darova sa slikama ili limenama koje su se nastavile do 1576


Sadržaj

Lady Jane Grey bila je praunuka kralja Henryja VII preko njegove najmlađe kćeri Mary i prve rođake koja je jednom uklonila kralja Edwarda VI. Nakon Edwardove smrti, protestantska frakcija proglasila ju je kraljicom nad njegovom katoličkom polusestrom Mary. Dvije sedmice kasnije, Mary je, uz podršku Engleza, preuzela tron, kojeg se Jane odrekla samo devet dana nakon što je postavljena. Jane i njen suprug, lord Guildford Dudley, bili su zatvoreni u londonskom Toweru pod optužbom za veleizdaju. Janeino suđenje je održano u novembru, ali je smrtna kazna suspendovana. U veljači 1554. Janein otac, vojvoda od Suffolka, koji je pomilovan, sudjelovao je u Wyattovoj pobuni. Dana 12. februara, Mary je imala Jane, koja je tada imala 16 godina, a njen muž je odrubio glavu Janeinu ocu, koji je dva dana kasnije doživio istu sudbinu. [4]

Jane je bila pobožna protestantkinja tokom engleske reformacije, kada je Engleska crkva nasilno odbacila autoritet pape i Rimokatoličke crkve. Poznata po svojoj pobožnosti i obrazovanju, dopisivala se s protestantskim vođama u kontinentalnoj Evropi, poput Heinricha Bullingera. Skromna osoba koja se odijevala čisto, a njene posljednje riječi prije pogubljenja izvještavaju se kao "Gospode, u tvoje ruke predajem svoj duh!" [5] Janeino pogubljenje od strane katoličke kraljice učinilo ju je onim što je Oxfordski rječnik nacionalne biografije naziva "protestantskom mučenicom" [5], a do kraja stoljeća Jane je postala, prema riječima povjesničara Erica Ivesa, "protestantska ikona". [6] Prikazi Jane u 16. i 17. stoljeću, kao u djelima Johna Foxea Djela i spomenici (1563.), objavljen nakon što je protestantkinja Elizabeta I preuzela prijestolje, "predstavio [Jane] prvenstveno figuru u nacionalnoj naraciji o izabranoj naciji koja posjeduje čistu protestantsku vjeru i koja se uzdigla nad katoličkom Evropom". [7]

Dugo se mislilo da je Jane jedini engleski monarh iz 16. stoljeća bez preživjelog savremenog portreta, koji je zabilježen u popisu iz 1590. godine, ali se sada smatra izgubljenim. [8] Neki koji su identificirani kao ona kasnije su se smatrali drugim čuvarima, poput jedne od Catherine Parr, posljednje od šest žena Henrika VIII, koja je do 1996. bila identificirana kao Lady Jane Grey. [A] Druga djela, poput as Egzekucija Lady Jane Grey (1833) Paula Delarochea, naslikane su godinama ili stoljećima nakon njene smrti. [9] Kao rezultat toga, Cynthia Zarin iz The New Yorker piše, "prazno mjesto na kojem bi [Janeino] lice trebalo biti znatno je olakšalo sljedećim generacijama da na nju utisnu svoje političke i lične fantazije". [8]

Portret dužine tri četvrtine ima dimenzije 85,6 cm × 60,3 cm (33,7 inča × 23,7 inča) i oslikan je uljem na baltičkom hrastu. [10] Izblijedjeli natpis koji glasi "Lady Jayne" [11] ili "Lady Iayne", [6] nalazi se u gornjem lijevom kutu, iznad ženskih ramena. [b] [12] Umjetnica je kritičarku Charlotte Higgins opisala kao sitnicu i "skromnu, pobožnu mladu ženu", koja je uslovno identificirana kao Lady Jane Grey. [13] Ives primjećuje porodičnu sličnost između dadilje i Greyinih sestara, Catherine i Mary, što "može dati pretpostavku" identifikaciji Greya. [6]

Subjekt nosi raskošnu crvenu haljinu sa rukavima od trube okrenute unazad i partletom sa stojećom kragnom, a poslednja je izvezena uzorkom fleur-de-lis, heraldičkim amblemom francuske kraljevske porodice. Dizajn na njezinoj donjoj suknji prikazuje uzorak različito identificiran kao jagode, trbušnjaci, škotski čičak ili roze boje, a posljednji od njih bio je amblem porodice Grey. Francuska kapuljača na glavi pokriva većinu njene crvene kose. Nosi brojne komade nakita, uključujući ogrlicu sa medaljonima i biserima koji ukazuju na osobu visokog društvenog i ekonomskog statusa, pojačanu svilom i baršunom njene haljine. Sjednica, međutim, ne nosi vjenčani prsten, što ukazuje na to da još nije udana. [14] Umjesto toga ona drži molitvenik. [13] Ova vrsta kostima bila je popularna u doba Tjudora, posebno 1550 -ih godina, a preciznost njenog prikaza korištena je za unaprjeđenje autentičnosti portreta kao prikaza Jane Grey. [15]

Nezavisni povjesničar J. Stephan Edwards piše, međutim, da mu je Fleur-de-Lis dala stanku jer prije juna 1553. Jane "ne bi imala pravo na francuske heraldičke ambleme" jer još nije bila prijestolonasljednik . [14] Nakon otkrića upisanog portreta Catherine Parr, 2014. Edwards je objavio probnu identifikaciju navedene slike kao originala na kojem je portret Streatham bio zasnovan. Napisao je da je Parrova slika "prilagođena da" postane "Jane Grey u nedostatku pristupačnog autentičnog portreta" u Streatham portretu i slično, potkrepivši to analizom sličnih stilova odijevanja i nakita (uključujući ogrlicu ukrašenih bisera). [14]

Recepcija slike kao umjetničkog djela bila je pretežno negativna. Povjesničar David Starkey opisao ju je kao "užasno lošu sliku i nema apsolutno nikakvog razloga pretpostaviti da to ima veze s Lady Jane Grey" [16], mišljenje koje je trgovac umjetninama Christopher Foley odbacio. [8] Tarnya Cooper iz Nacionalne galerije portreta iznela je manje oštre kritike, rekavši da je "to slika po broju, radna kopija", [17] i "da je njena vrednost više istorijski dokument nego umetničko delo". [16] Zarin opisuje sliku kao da je izblijedjela u usporedbi s drugim portretima monarha, s "ravnim licem papirnate lutke". [17] Edwards piše "kvaliteta bi se mogla opisati kao naivna, primitivna ili čak narodna umjetnost". [14]

Produkcija i rana istorija Edit

Portret je bez datuma i bez atribucije. Smatra se da je dovršena 1590 -ih, otprilike četrdeset godina nakon Janeine smrti, vjerojatno kao kopija Janeinog duboreza iz 1580. [18] [2] [3], dendrokronologija datira drvenu ploču u c. 1593. [16]

Još jedan upečatljivo sličan portret, koji prikazuje ženu koja se također pripisuje Jane - iako se kostim malo razlikuje - nekada je bio u vlasništvu Richarda Moncktona Milnesa, prvog baruna Houghtona, ali je sada u neotkrivenoj privatnoj kolekciji. Zbog sličnosti između dva djela, Edwards sugerira da su oboje kopije izgubljenog originala, možda dovršenog u istom studiju. [19] Treća kopija, koja je nekada bila u vlasništvu engleskog kostimografa Herberta Norrisa, poznata je kroz zapise, iako se ne zna gdje se nalazi. [20]

Portret iz Streathama možda je bio dio zbirke protestantskih slika mučenika. Oštećenja na ustima i očima slike ukazuju na to da je vandalizirana, vjerovatno od strane katoličkog partizana jer sedamnaest ogrebotina nije razbilo boju, ovaj napad je vjerovatno bio nedugo nakon završetka portreta. [21] Zbog grubosti slike, Foley sugerira da je za Janeinu porodicu užurbano dovršena iz originala koji je "morao biti uništen jer bi bilo previše opasno posjedovati ga kad Mary postane kraljica". [22]

Discovery Edit

Portret je do 20. stoljeća bio u posjedu porodice u Streathamu u Londonu. [16] Dugo su vjerovali da je portret Jane, a od 1923. pokušavali su druge uvjeriti u njegovu autentičnost, bez uspjeha. Prenosilo se s koljena na koljeno. [16] U decembru 2005. godine, Sir John Guinness obavijestio je Foleyja o porodici i njihovom portretu. Foley je posjetio vlasnika, u nadi da će "otići ušutkati momka", [23] ali nakon što je vidio rad na štafelaju na njihovom tavanu "znao je da je to u redu" za to razdoblje. [23]

O identitetu sjednice raspravljalo se od otkrića panela. Foley je identificirao najmanje četiri Jane Greys među engleskim plemstvom u vrijeme portreta. Međutim, zbog "godina i bračnog statusa drugih kandidata", Lady Jane Gray bila je jedini održivi izbor, ostali su bili premladi, već bili u braku i koristili su se drugim prezimenom ili su izgubili titulu. [24] Starkey je bio rezervisaniji, tvrdeći da "nema tako vrhunske kvalitete koju dobijate s kraljevskim portretima tog razdoblja, gdje sjedeći izgledaju kao da su se upravo vratili iz Aspreya", [11] i da nema dokumentacije o Jane koja posjeduje nakit koji se vidi na portretu. [16]

Nakon otkrića, Libby Sheldon sa Univerzitetskog koledža u Londonu provela je nekoliko testova kako bi provjerila starost slike, uključujući spektroskopiju i lasersku mikroskopiju. Uzeta je u obzir starost natpisa i utvrđeno je da je isti kao i ostatak slike. [14] Pigmenti, uključujući vrstu žutog pigmenta koji se rijetko nalazi nakon 1600. godine, bili su primjereni za 16. stoljeće. [23] Dendrohronološka analiza kasnije je pokazala da je djelo bilo prekasno da bi bilo životni portret Jane, ali nije isključilo mogućnost reprodukcije. [14]

Nacionalna galerija portreta Uredi

Sliku je 2006. godine kupila Nacionalna galerija portreta u Londonu, sredstvima prikupljenim na proslavi 150. godišnjice [25], nakon više od devet mjeseci razmatranja. Pričalo se da je cijena veća od 100.000 funti [16], iako Zarin daje cijenu od 95.000 funti. [26] Starkey je kritizirao akviziciju, rekavši: "Ako Nacionalna galerija portreta ima javni novac za spaljivanje, neka tako i bude. [Odluka] ovisi samo o glasinama i tradiciji, a nije dovoljno dobra". [16] Foley je uzvratio: "Dokaze su podržali ljudi koji znaju više o nauci o slikanju od Davida Starkeyja. Ne znam u čemu je njegov problem - je li to zato što ga nije pronašao?" [16]

Privatno Starkey je djelovala u ime galerije Philip Mold i pregledala još jedan portret za koji se misli da je Jane, a koji drži Yale centar za britansku umjetnost. Ova minijatura od 2 centimetra (0,79 inča) identifikovana je kao Elizabeta I tokom izložbe 1983. u Muzeju Viktorije i Alberta Starkey, međutim, "90 posto je sigurna" da prikazuje Jane. [27] Nakon izložbe u ožujku 2007. godine Lost Faces, kada je minijatura prikazana nakon nedavnog porasta interesa za Jane, Foley je objavio dugo pismo u kojem osporava Starkeyjevu presudu. Naveo je broš i amblem čuvarice kao pokazatelj da ona nije Jane Grey. [c] [17]

Portret Streatham nosi pristupni broj NPG 6804 i smatra se dijelom primarne kolekcije galerije. [25] Od januara 2007. do početka 2010. bio je izložen u galeriji Tudor. Početkom 2013. godine slika je bila okačena u prostoriju 2 regionalne ispostave galerije u kući Montacute u Somersetu, dio izložbe portreta iz doba Tjudora. [28]


Mnogo lica Lady Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey bila je kraljica samo devet dana, no mnogi je ne smatraju kraljicom jer nije imala krunidbu.#8211 međutim, Edward Plantagenet (sin Edwarda IV) dobio je titulu Edwarda V iako nije imao krunisanje. Zašto onda Jane ne nazivamo engleskom kraljicom Jane I? Oba monarha su vladala vrlo kratko prije svoje smrti. Smrt Edwarda#8217 je misterija, dok je smrt Jane ’s naredila kraljica Mary I nakon što nije imala izbora nego pogubiti svoj#8220rival ”.

U ovom članku fokusiramo se na to kako je izgledala Jane Grey i koji od portreta koji su nam dostupni možda najviše liči na opisanu "Kraljicu devetog dana".

Hvala mojoj prijateljici Natalie na On the Tudor Trail -u što je podelila post gosta od Tamise Hills iz Referentnog vodiča Lady Jane Grey, kome je pronađen ovaj savremeni opis Lady Jane Grey:

"Danas sam vidio Lady Jane Grey kako ide u velikoj povorci do Tower -a. Ona se sada zove kraljica, ali nije popularna, jer su srca ljudi uz Mariju, kćerku španske kraljice. Ova Jane je vrlo niska i mršava, ali lijepo oblikovana i graciozna. Ima male crte lica i dobro napravljen nos, usta fleksibilna, a usne crvene. Obrve su zaobljene i tamnije od njezine kose, koja je gotovo crvena. Oči su joj svjetlucave i crvenkastosmeđe boje. Stajao sam toliko blizu njezine milosti da sam primijetio da joj je boja dobra, ali pjegava. Kad se nasmiješila, pokazala je bijele i oštre zube. U svemu milostiva i animirana figura. Nosila je haljinu od zelenog baršuna sa zlatnim žigom, sa velikim rukavima. Njeno pokrivalo za glavu bilo je bijela kosa s mnogo dragulja . Nova kraljica bila je montirana na vrlo visoke sjeckalice kako bi izgledala mnogo viĹ ,e, što je skrivalo ogrtaÄ ‡ e, jer je vrlo mala i kratka. – Baptisa Spinola, 10 Jula 1553

Evo još jednog opisa Jane ’s Intelligence – koji se nalazi na TudorPlace.com.ar:

Ascham je u pismu iz 1550. godine opisao Jane:

“Ipak, ne mogu prijeći dvije Engleskinje, niti bih želio, dragi moj Sturmijuse, preći preko bilo čega ako razmišljate o prijateljima koje treba imati na umu u Engleskoj, od kojih mi ništa nije poželjnije. Jedna je Jane Grey, kći plemenitog markiza Dorseta. Budući da je za baku imala Mariju, kraljicu Francuske, bila je u bliskom srodstvu s našim kraljem Edwardom. Ima petnaest godina. Na sudu sam bio vrlo prijateljski nastrojen prema njoj, a ona mi je napisala naučena pisma: Prošlog ljeta, kada sam bila u posjetu prijateljima u Yorkshireu i od njih me pozvala pisma Johna Chekea da dođem na sud, prekinula sam putovanje put u Leicester gdje je Jane Gray boravila sa svojim ocem. Odmah su me uveli u njenu odaju: zatekao sam plemenitu mladu damu koja je čitala (Kod Jupitera!) Na grčkom, Platona i Fedona, i s takvim razumijevanjem da je izazvalo moje najveće divljenje. Ona tako govori i piše grčki da bi se tome teško pripisalo. Ona ima tutora Johna Aylmera, koji dobro poznaje oba jezika i meni je najdraži zbog njegove humanosti, mudrosti, navika, čiste religije i mnogih drugih veza najiskrenijeg prijateljstva. Na odlasku mi je obećala da će mi pisati na grčkom, pod uslovom da joj pošaljem svoja pisma napisana sa carskog suda. Svakodnevno očekujem grčko pismo od nje: kad stigne, odmah ću vam ga poslati. ”

Od navedenih slika, za koje mislite da po opisu najviše liči na Jane?

Zatim, usporedimo#8217s slike Jane sa njenim sestrama, Catherine i Mary. Odabrao sam onu ​​za koju vjerujem da ima najsličnije karakteristike i#8211 možda vjerujete da nije tako i to je u redu.

Jane je s lijeve strane, Mary gore desno, a Catherine dolje desno

Istoričar David Starkey je 2007. vjerovao da je identifikovao jedinu savremenu sliku Lady Jane Grey.

Dr Starkey, specijalist za Tudor, tvrdio je da je bio 󈭊 posto siguran ” da je uspio identificirati prvi savremeni portret Jane Grey, pobožnog protestantskog pijuna koji je bio kraljica devet dana 1553. prije nego što mu je odrubljena glava londonski Tower.

Portret, promjera manjeg od dva inča, pripada američkoj kolekciji i poznato je da datira iz sredine 16. stoljeća. Čuvarica nikada ranije nije bila imenovana, ali dr Starkey je rekao da ju je identifikovao kao Jane Grey iz broša na haljini i visoko simboličnog nakita u spreju lišća iza nje, povezujući je sa svojim mužem.

Portret koji je David Starkey identificirao kao Lady Jane Grey

Evo još jednog portreta sestre Jane ’ Catherine Grey koju sam stavio pored slike koju je Startkey identificirao – vidite li sličnosti?

Na kraju, pogledaćemo najčešće korištenu sliku Jane, "Streathamov" portret iz 1590 -ih vjeruje se da je kasnija kopija savremenog portreta Lady Jane Grey. Čini se da iz prvog opisa ovaj pokriva sve osnove: “male crte lica, dobro napravljen nos, usta fleksibilna, usne crvene, obrve zaobljene i tamnije od kose, koja je skoro crvena. Oči su joj svjetlucave i crvenkastosmeđe boje. ” Da li biste se složili da bi ovo bio najvjerovatniji portret Jane Grey?

Možda nikada nećemo sa sigurnošću znati kako su izgledale mnoge Tudorove figure – slike nisu slike, a savremeni izvještaji ovih ljudi su od ljudi. Ljepota je u oku posmatrača, zar ne? Uz sve ovo rečeno, iz opisa Jane na početku djela i usporedbe s njezinim sestrama, još uvijek vjerujem da je Streathamov portret najvjerojatnije jedina prava slika o Jane koju imamo.

Dalje čitanje:

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Skeffingtonov portret

Istraživanje portreta iz šesnaestog stoljeća složena je, ali fascinantna tema. U mnogim slučajevima potraga započinje samom preživjelom slikom, a zatim se nastavlja potragom za bilo kojom pisanom dokumentacijom koja se odnosi na njezino porijeklo i bilo kakvim naznakama moguće identifikacije sjedećeg lica.

Kada govorimo o portretima koji imaju povijest od otprilike četiri stotine pedeset godina iza sebe, treba se sjetiti da je danas teško otkriti portret koji nije izmijenjen u nekom obliku ili obliku. S godinama je originalna slikana površina portreta možda bila prefarbana zbog loše restauracije ili pretjeranog čišćenja. Natpisi i grbovi su također mogli biti dodani u kasnijem vremenskom periodu, a u nekim slučajevima kompozicija, originalni natpisi i potpisi mogli su biti izrezani kako bi se portret mogao uklopiti u novi okvir.

U slučaju Skeffingtonovog portreta dogodilo se mnogo gore navedenog. Ovaj portret je takođe identifikovan kao najmanje četiri zasebne osobe tokom njegove moderne zabilježene istorije. Tri od četiri predložene sjednice su se suočile sa pogubljenjem, a danas je portret sada identificiran kao nepoznata dama.

Naš prvi dokumentovani zapis o preživljavanju ovog portreta je knjiga iz zbirke Društva antikviteta u Londonu. Ova knjiga sadrži kopije zapisnika sa sastanaka koje je društvo održalo tokom devetnaestog stoljeća i bilježi da je portret za koji se misli da prikazuje Lady Jane Gray poklonio Društvu Sir William Skeffington 6. februara 1806. [1]

Predstavljeni portret prikazuje damu, viđenu ispod pojasa i okrenutu gledatelju lijevo. Obje su ruke sklopljene ispred čuvarice, a na njenim prstima vide se četiri zlatna prstena. Sjednica ima sijede oči i kestenjastu kosu koja je razdijeljena po sredini. Na glavi nosi francusku kapuljaču napravljenu od grimizne i bijele tkanine s gornjim i donjim stubovima zlatarskog rada. Vidljiv je i crni veo koji visi sa stražnje strane kapuljače, a ispod njega nosi zlatnu frizuru. Sitnica nosi crnu široku haljinu s krznenom ogrlicom i rukavima od nogu ovčetine koja se pričvršćuje za struk. Ispod toga se vidi nagovještaj grimizne djevojke, a na njenom vratu i zapešćima sjedeća osoba nosi osmoricu osmica izvezenih crvenim koncem. Gospođa također nosi privjesak zlatarske radnje koji sadrži tri dragog kamenja četvrtastog kroja i tri bisera ovješena oko vrata. Ona je prikazana ispred obične pozadine, a slika je naslikana na drvenoj ploči.

Nepoznata dama zvana Anne Askew
Ulje na ploči
27 x 21 inča
Povezan sa Hansom Eworth -om
© Nacionalni fond

Sir William Farrell-Skeffington usvojio je ime Skeffington 1786. godine i naslijedio kuriju Skeffington Hall iz 15. stoljeća u istočnom Leicesteru. Prije smrti počeo je rasprodavati predmete s imanja, a na kraju je prodao kuću, zemljište i sadržaj u julu 1814. [2]

Skeffington je sliku poklonio na prodaju velečasnom Johnu Brandu, sekretaru Društva starinara. On je obavijestio Društvo da portret predstavlja Lady Jane Grey, a naslikao ga je Lucas de Heere. U zapisniku sa ovog sastanka nema podataka koji bi nas obavijestili zašto je Skeffington smatrao da je portret prikaz Lady Jane, a nisu zabilježeni podaci o porijeklu slika. Čini se da je gospodin Brand odmah osporio Skeffingtonovu identifikaciju kao sliku Jane Grey, napominjući da se na gornjoj lijevoj strani površine ploče može vidjeti fragment natpisa koji identificira datum portreta naslikanog 1560. godine. s pravom podsjetio da se datum naslikan na površini nije poklopio sa smrću Lady Jane Gray i predložio je da portret zapravo mora predstavljati Janeinu majku Lady Frances Brandon, pri čemu je Brand primijetio da je umrla 1563. [3]

Jedan od mogućih razloga pogrešne identifikacije kao portreta Lady Jane Grey je natpis koji se vidi s desne strane površine ploče. Ovaj natpis glasi "Radije pogibi / nego lažno o Faythe", što sugerira da bi prikazana sjedila radije umrla ili je možda umrla kao posljedica vjerskog sukoba. Čini se da je sam natpis obojen u nešto drugačiju žutu nijansu od one na kojoj su godine i inicijali umjetnika na lijevoj strani. Ovo sugerira da je jedan od natpisa vjerovatno dodan kasnije, iako će biti potrebno naučno ispitivanje da bi se utvrdilo je li ta teorija točna.

Postoji popularna tradicija da je kraljica Marija ponudila Jane pomilovanje ako je voljna preći na rimokatolicizam. Čini se da se tradicija pojavila ubrzo nakon Janeine smrti kao način na koji protestanti mogu promovirati Janeinu predanost protestantskoj stvari, čak i kad se suoče sa smrću. Ne postoje sačuvani dokazi koji bi dokumentirali da je Jane ikada ponuđeno stvarno pomilovanje ako bi se preobratila, ali zaista je učinjen napor da se ona natera da se obrati

Jane je 8. februara 1554. posjetio John Feckenham, lični kapelan kraljice Marije. Do tog trenutka u svojoj priči, Jane je bila suočena sa suđenjem i bila je osuđena i osuđena na smrt kao izdajica jer je prihvatila krunu i potpisala se kao kraljica. Mary je spriječena u izdavanju pomilovanja jer su Španjolci zahtijevali da Jane umre kao uslov braka između Marije i Filipa Španjolskog. Njeno pogubljenje prvobitno je bilo određeno za naredni dan. Mary je ipak uspjela spasiti Janeinu besmrtnu dušu i poslala je Feckenhama da vidi Jane s tim specifičnim zadatkom, da pokuša prevesti Jane u katoličanstvo prije njene smrti.

Janeino pogubljenje odgođeno je za tri dana, a između Feckenhama i Jane vodila se rasprava zbog koje je Jane ostala snažna u odnosu na protestantsku vjeru, a ne odustala od nje. Ova rasprava je snimljena i očigledno je potpisana Janeinom rukom. Nekoliko mjeseci nakon njene smrti, pojavilo se u štampanom obliku, zajedno s pismom koje je Jane napisala svom bivšem učitelju Thomasu Hardingu u kojem ga je osudila zbog njegove promjene katoličanstva, promovirajući tako snažno vjerovanje Jane u protestantsku vjeru. 1615. brošura pod naslovom „Život, smrt i radnje najčednije, učene i religiozne dame, Lady Jane Grey“Objavljeno je u Londonu. Ovaj pamflet sadržavao je primjerak ranije štampane debate, a u uvodu je napomenuto da:

Čak su i oni koji su imali najbolju slavu i ugled bili poslani k njoj da je odvrate od onog pravog ispovijedanja evanđelja, koje je držala u svojoj kolijevci. Svaki koji teži umjetnošću, laskanjem, prijetnjama, obećanjem života ili onim što bi se još moglo najviše kretati u krilu slabe žene.[4]

Sasvim je moguće da je natpis na desnoj strani portreta i mit da je Jane ponuđeno obećanje pomilovanja ako je voljna promijeniti vjeru naveli Skeffingtona ili prethodnog vlasnika da vjeruje da slika mora zapravo prikazuju Jane Grey.

Skeffingtonov portret kupilo je Društvo antikvara i ostao je u njihovoj zbirci gdje je zadnji put zabilježen 1847. godine. [5] Način na koji je portret napustio Društvo ostaje misterija, ali je službeno zabilježen kao "slika koja nedostaje" u jednoj od novijih publikacija o njegovoj zbirci. [6]

Kao što je gore rečeno, portret je nestao negdje nakon 1847. godine, ali se ponovno pojavio 1866. godine kada je izložen kao slika Anne Askew na Nacionalnoj izložbi portreta iz zbirke Reginalda Cholmondeleya. [7] Glavno imanje Reginalda Cholmondeleya bila je Condover Hall iz šesnaestog stoljeća u Shrewsburyju. Nakon njegove smrti, sadržaj dvorane prodan je na aukciji 6. marta 1897. Čini se da se identifikacija sjedećeg lica još jednom promijenila, a do 1897. portret se tada spominjao kao:

Stavka 43. Lucas de Heere, Kraljica Marija (Škotska), u crnoj boji sa ružičastim rufom i manžetama, kapom sa zlatnim lancem i značkom sa draguljima. Upisano "Radije smrt nego laž Faythea", datirano 1560.

Portret je kupljen na ovoj aukciji u ime Wilbrahama Egertona, Earla Egertona, šogora Reginalda Cholmondeleya, a zatim je izložen u parku Tatton. Godine 1958. Tatton Park i njegov sadržaj ostavljeni su u amanet Nacionalnom fondu od Mauricea Egertona, 4. barona Egertona iz Tattona, a portret je tamo izložen i danas.

Moje je mišljenje da dok se ne provede znanstveno istraživanje na ovom portretu kako bi se ustanovilo jesu li natpisi originalni ili su kasnije dodani, tada će se pravi identitet njegovog sjedećeg osoblja i dalje moći nepoznati. Portret se danas nalazi na web stranici zbirke National Trust kao Nepoznata dama, koja se zove Anne Askew. Kao što je detaljno objašnjeno u drugim člancima na ovoj web stranici, veličina volana koju nosi dadilja i datum ispisan s lijeve strane nisu u skladu s datumom smrti Jane Grey i Anne Askew. Skeffingtonov portret sada se može ukloniti s popisa svih potencijalnih sličnosti za koje se mislilo da prikazuju Lady Jane Grey

[1] Zbornik londonskog društva antikviteta, tom 1, stranica 47

[2] Velika petnaestodnevna prodaja sadržaja Skeffington Halla započela je 11. jula 1814. William Ferrell-Skeffington se iste godine preselio u London, međutim umro je manje od godinu dana 26. januara 1815. godine.

[3] Zbornik londonskog Društva antikvara, tom 1, stranica 47. Čini se da je John Band netačno naveo datum smrti Frances Grey. Frances je umrla 20. novembra 1559. a ne 1563. kako je navedeno u ovim zapisnicima. Jedna zanimljiva stvar je da je John Brand također posjedovao portret za koji se misli da prikazuje Lady Jane Grey. Portret je prodan nakon smrti na Stewards Auctions, Piccadilly, 23. juna 1807. Kupio ga je kolekcionar knjiga Richard Heber Esq za iznos od osam funti. Nijedan portret opisan kao Lady Jane Grey ne pojavljuje se u prodajnim katalozima Heberove kolekcije.

[4] Život, smrt i postupci najčednije, učene i religiozne dame, Gospođa Jane Grey, štampao G. Eld za Johna Wrighta, 1615, stranica 22

[5] Elektronička komunikacija, Lucy Ellis, upraviteljica zbirki muzeja, Društvo starinara, rujan 2018

[6] Franklin. J. A, Katalog slika u zbirci Londonskog društva antikviteta, 2015., stranica 411-412

[7] Katalog za nacionalnu izložbu portreta 1866. stranica 21. Anne Askew je spaljena kao kolac kao jeretik 1546. jer nije htjela priznati da je sakrament „Kristovo tijelo, krv i kost“.


Beaufortov minijaturni portret

Beaufortova minijatura
Zovu se Lady Jane Grey
Akvarel na velumu primijenjen na karticu
(c) Privatna zbirka

Prodata u aukcijskoj kući Sotheby's u Londonu, 13. rujna 1983. godine, kao lot 90, Beaufortova minijatura jedna je od novijih slika koja se prodaje sa sjedećom osobom za koju se radi o Lady Jane Grey. Slika je povezana s umjetnicom Levinom Teerlinc i naslikana je na velumu. Sotheby's prodaja uključivala je drugu minijaturu pripisanu istom umjetniku, a obje su ranije bile u zbirci Henryja Somerseta, 12. vojvode od Beauforta.

Prije nego što detaljno proučimo ovaj minijaturni portret, prvo moramo ispitati umjetnika povezanog s njim i utvrditi bi li Levina Teerlinc imala pristup naslikati Lady Jane Grey. Rođena oko 1510., Teerlinc je bila kćerka poznatog flamanskog ilustratora Simona Bennincka, a velika je vjerovatnoća da ju je otac naučio slikati. Do 1546. godine bila je udata, radila i živjela u Engleskoj. Henry VIII je Teerlinc -u dodjeljivao plaću od 40 funti godišnje, a za nju se navodi da je radila za englesku krunu do svoje smrti 1576. [1] Teerlinc je pomalo enigma. Artists of the sixteenth century, even those with a large surviving output, are ordinarily not well documented today. But the reverse is true of Teerlinc. The State Papers of four separate Tudor monarchs include specific mention of her, yet no portrait reliably attributable to her is known to have survived today.[2]

In July 1983, a small number of miniature portraits were grouped together for the first time and exhibited as part of the Portrait Miniature Rediscovered Exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum. All were painted between 1546-1576, or during the period between the deaths of both Hans Holbein and Lucas Hornebolte in the 1540’s and the rise of Nicolas Hillard in the 1570’s. All of the images were thought in 1983 to have been produced by Levina Teerlinc, though there is no surviving evidence to prove that assertion conclusively. [3] All of the miniatures do show some similarities in draughtsmanship. The sitters do all have rather large heads and stick-like arms, and some similarities in the brushwork were also noted, including the use of loose wash work to create the features. Since the completion of the exhibition, a number of other miniature portraits showing the same compositional mannerisms, including the Beaufort Miniature, have been sold at auction and have also been associated with Teerlinc.

Lady Katherine Grey
Watercolour on vellum applied to card
(c) Victoria and Albert Museum

Among the group of miniatures exhibited in the Portrait Miniature Rediscovered Exhibition and associated with Teerlinc is a portrait now in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Purchased by the museum in June 1979, it is called Lady Katherine Grey due to an early inscription on the back that reads “The La Kathn Graye/wyfe of th’ Erle of/ Hertford”. If the identity of the sitter and artist associated with this painting is correct, then Teerlinc most certainly had access to Jane’s sister. Teerlinc is also documented as producing several images of Elizabeth, including receiving payment in 1551 for a portrait of her as princess. Susan James has also suggested that Teerlinc painted Catherine Parr, which suggests that Teerlinc came into contact with people that Jane would have known personally. There is the slight possibility that she might have come into contact with Jane herself.[4]

The Beaufort Miniature depicts a young lady, seen to below the waist and facing the viewer’s left. Both hands are depicted in front, and she is holding a pair of gloves in her right hand, which has a ring on the fourth finger. On her head, she wears a French hood with both upper and lower billaments made up of goldsmith work and pearls. A black veil is also seen hanging down at the back. A black loose gown with a fur collar and fitted mutton leg sleeves is worn by the sitter. At her neck she wears a small ruff edged with gold thread. The sitter is depicted on a blue background with a gold border.

Unknown Lady
Called Lady Frances Grey
Watercolour on vellum
(c)Victoria and Albert Museum

As discussed above, the miniature had previously been in the collection of Henry Somerset, 12 th Duke of Beaufort.[5] In the auction catalogue at the time of the sale, the lot was officially titled “An Important Married Lady at The Tudor Court.” The suggestion that the sitter could possibly be Lady Jane Grey was made within the description that accompanied the lot. The catalogue reported similarities in the facial features of the sitter depicted in the Beaufort Miniature and the miniature portrait of Lady Katherine Grey at the Victoria and Albert Museum. It then went on to suggest Lady Jane Grey is the sitter and that the image was “taken shortly before her death in 1554”. The catalogue did rightfully record that there is no proof to back up this theory. A second miniature also associated with Teerlinc and sold during the same auction was similarly suggested to depict Jane Grey’s mother, Lady Frances Brandon. [6] When looking at the Beaufort miniature and the other thought to depict Lady Katherine Grey side by side, there does appear to be some similarities in the faces, but this cannot be used today as the sole reason to identify a sitter within a painting. There are other clues in the painting that give us some indication that the sitter is not, in fact, Lady Jane Grey.

The ruff seen in the painting appears to be the only major datable aspect. The ruff was an essential part of the Tudor wardrobe by the mid sixteenth and early seventeenth century and was worn across Europe in a variety of styles. In the case of the Beaufort Miniature, we see an example from the early stages of the evolution of the ruffs. It appears to be attached to the sitter’s partlet rather than worn as a separate item that was starched and fixed in place, as was seen in later periods.

Called Catherine Howard (Detail)
Hans Holbein
(c) The Royal Collection

To trace the evolution of the ruff worn in Britain, we must first look at the fashion worn by ladies during the 1540’s. It was during this period that it became more favourable for ladies to cover the chest rather than the previous fashion of the chest being revealed by the low-cut French gowns. As seen in a portrait thought to depict Katherine Howard and now in the Royal Collection. This was achieved with the use of a partlet. Worn beneath the bodice and tied under the arms this would have been made from a fine fabric.

  • Mary Tudor (Detail)
    Antonis Mor
    (c) Museo Del Prado
  • Unknown Lady (Detail)
    British School
    (c) Private Collection
  • Mary Tudor
    After Antonis Mor
    (c)NPG

By the end of the 1540’s and early 1550’s, ladies continued to wear the partlet, however, this had developed slightly. Surviving portraits from this period show that the partlet continued to be constructed from a fine fabric similar to what would have been used to create the chemise, though this had been fitted with a neck band to create a small frill or collar. The addition of a second partlet known as an outer partlet made with a v-shaped collar of a contrasting fabric to the outer gown could also be worn over this.

  • Unknown Lady (Detail)
    Hans Eworth
    (c) Fitzwilliam Museum
  • Beaufort Miniature (Detail)
  • Mary Neville (Detail)
    Hans Eworth
    (c)NPG

By the mid 1550’s, the small frill seen at the neck had again grown in size and had begun to surround the face, similar in style to what is seen in the Beaufort Miniature. This ruffle would eventually develop into the ruff seen in the later periods after the 1560’s and would eventually become a separated from the partlet altogether. [7]

When compared to portraits painted during the later half of the 1550’s, including one of an unknown lady in the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum dating to 1555 and another of Mary Neville in the National Portrait Gallery dating to 1559 the Beaufort Miniature appears to sit in the middle with the ruffle looking as though it is still attached to a partlet as seen in the Fitzwilliam portrait and without the use of wire or starch to create the defined figure of eight shape seen in the portrait of Mary Neville.

Though arguably there are some similarities in the facial features of the Beaufort Miniature and the V&A miniature of Lady Katherine Grey, this could be attributed to the artist’s style rather than to family resemblance. It is my opinion that the sitter depicted in the Beaufort Miniature is wearing a ruffle that is slightly too late in period to have been worn by Lady Jane Grey. The miniature is unlikely to have been painted prior to 1554 as the catalogue suggests. Though a beautiful little picture, there is no evidence to suggest that it was thought prior to the 1983 auction to be an image of Jane Grey. This can now be removed from the list of any likenesses thought to depict Lady Jane Grey.

[1] Strong. Roy, The English Renaissance Miniature, Thames and Hudson, 1983, page 54

[2] James. Susan, The Feminine Dynamic in English Art, 1485-1603, Women as Consumers, Patrons and Painter, Ashgate Publishing, 2009

[3] Strong. Roy, Artists of the Tudor Court, The Portrait Miniature Rediscovered 1520-1620, Thames and Hudson, 1983, page 52

[4] James. Susan, The Feminine Dynamic in English Art, 1485-1603, Women as Consumers, Patrons and Painter, Ashgate Publishing, 2009, page 27

[5] Artist file for Levina Teerlinc, Heinz Archive, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG50/21/250, accessed 2018. It is not known exactly when the Duke acquired the miniature, but a photograph taken in 1983 lists the sitter as “Unknown Lady.” This suggests that the sitter was not thought to depict Jane Grey prior to the sale of that same year.

[6] Sotheby’s Auction Catalogue, 13 th September 1983, page 31. Purchased by the Victorian and Albert Museum in 1983 this miniature is catalogued today as “unknown lady”

[7] For further information on the evolution of the ruff see Arnold. Janet, Pattern of Fashion 4, The cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c.1540-1660, Macmillan, 2008.


Background on England&aposs State of Affairs

After Henry VIII’s death in 1547, his only male heir, Edward, assumed the throne. Sickly with tuberculosis and only 10 years old at the time of his coronation, Edward VI was easily manipulated by calculating individuals such as the fiercely Protestant John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who acted as regent to the young king. By January 1553, it was clear Edward was dying, and Dudley was desperate to prevent the throne from passing to Edward’s half-sister, Mary Tudor, a devout Catholic. As the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Mary became a pawn in Henry’s quest for a male heir. Henry had divorced Catherine, declaring his marriage null because she was the former wife of his deceased brother. This also deemed Mary illegitimate in the eyes of the court.


The Portraits of Lord Guildford Dudley

One of the lesser known and in some cases forgotten characters in the story of Lady Jane Grey is her husband Lord Guildford Dudley. Various articles have been written on the iconography of Lady Jane Grey and the numerous portraits thought to depict her. Almost nothing has been written relating to the iconography of her husband, which is why I have decided to write and include this article on this website.

As discussed in previous articles, a small number of portraits held in private collections have been associated with Lord Guildford Dudley over the passage of time. During the research for this article, I have so far been unable to locate any sixteenth century references to a portrait of Lord Guildford Dudley being held in collections.

The first documented reference located so far to a portrait of him appears in 1820, a portrait sold by a Mr Bullock of London. This was formerly in the collection of a Mr David Holt Esq of Manchester, and the catalogue for the sale describes the painting as being by a Sir A. Mor. The entry for the lot is as follows:

A portrait of lady jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley in one frame, the latter portrait is the only one known to exist of Lord Guildford”[1].

This portrait was again sold in 1833 and has now disappeared from the historical record.

As with Lady Jane Grey, so little is known about her husband. His story has been embellished and exaggerated to enable writers to make the character of Jane Grey appear vulnerable to the manipulation and bullying by others that surrounded her. His story, like that of his wife, has been surrounded by myths with little known today of the actual person.

Similar to his wife, there is no date recorded to inform us of the exact date on which Guildford Dudley was born. Traditionally, his year of birth has been recorded as either 1534 or 1536, but recent research produced by Susan Higginbotham suggests that he may have possibly been born between 1537 and 1538, thus making him the same age as Jane Grey or possibly younger.[2]

We also have no detailed description as to what Guildford Dudley looked like. As discussed in previous articles, the description given by Richard Davey detailing Guildford’s features as he entered the Tower of London with Jane as queen in 1553 has today been proved to be an invention by the author. We are simply left with vague references to him being “handsome” by his contemporaries which give us nothing in terms of his physical features.[3]

The aim of this article is to look at the portraits that have been associated with Lord Guildford Dudley in the past in the hope of establishing if there is any possibility of any of these being a genuine image painted from life. Where possible I have included what is known about the provenance of the image in the hope of establishing some documented order.

The Madresfield Court Portrait
Called Lord Guildford Dudley
Unknown Artist
Oil on Panel
© Madresfield Court

Our first portrait appears publicly in a book published in the early twentieth century entitled “The Tower of London” by Ronald Sutherland Gower. Traditionally identified as Lord Guildford Dudley, this painting has for many years been displayed alongside another thought to represent his wife Lady Jane at Madresfield Court in Malvern, Worcestershire. Both portraits have been in the collection of the Earls of Beauchamp since the early nineteenth century.

Neither portrait is an authentic likeness. The portrait thought to represent Lady Jane Grey is discussed in detail by John Stephan Edwards, and it is concluded within his article that the artist who painted the portrait intended it to be a representation of Mary Magdalene and not Jane Grey.[4]

The portrait thought to represent Lord Guildford Dudley shows a male figure standing to the viewers left with his righthand on hip and his left hand resting on his sword. He wears a light-coloured doublet with high standing collar and a large figure-of-eight ruff. The sitter has dark hair and wears a black bonnet that includes goldsmith work and two feathers within its decoration. He is depicted in front of a dark background and in the top left-hand corner is an inscription which reads 1566 Æ SVÆ, 20.

The first questionable aspect of this painting is the inscription. This is inconsistent with the known facts of Guildford Dudley’s life and is dated to some twelve years after his execution in 1554. It is not truly known how this image became associated with Guildford, though it appears that whoever suggested the identity did not know the year in which he died. The date is also inconsistent with the costume worn by the sitter, particularly the large circular ruff seen at his neck and the hat worn by the sitter. This style of ruff dates to the later period of Queen Elizabeth’s reign and is seen in many portraits painted during the 1580’s. During the 1560’s the smaller figure-of-eight ruff which generally surrounded the face was in common use. This again suggest that the inscription itself was probably added later and that this painting was not meant by the artist who created it to be a representation of Lord Guildford Dudley.

It is highly likely that Guildford’s name was associated with this portrait with little reason behind it. Nothing is seen within the painted image to establish that this portrait was ever painted from life or was ever meant to be a depiction of Lord Guildford Dudley.

The Tyntesfield Portrait

The Tyntesfield Portrait
Called Lord Guildford Dudley
Unknown Artist
Oil on Paper Laid Down on Panel
13 x 9 1/2 inches
© The National Trust

Named in this article after its current location, this portrait is now in the collection of The National Trust at Tyntesfield House, though it is not currently on display.

This image depicts a young gentleman with blonde hair, painted three-quarter length and facing the viewer’s right. He is wearing a black hat with a yellow feather, a black doublet embellished with gold, and a dark fur overcoat with yellow sleeves. The sitter’s right hand is resting on a sword that is attached to his hips.

This portrait was purchased as a painting of Guildford Dudley by George Adraham Gibbs, 1 st Baron Wraxhall (1873-1931). On his death it passed to his son Richard Lawley Gibbs, 2 nd Baron Wraxhall (1922-2001) and was subsequently purchased by the National Trust in 2002.[5]

The National Trust collections website describes this painting as being both British made and created using oil on paper applied to panel. It is also noted to report that the portrait is probably nineteenth century in origin. Though no scientific investigation has taken place on this image to establish a date of creation, the style of the painting is more consistent with nineteenth century techniques than that of sixteenth century techniques.

Until a firm date of creation can be established, It is more than likely that this portrait is an imaginary image of Guildford Dudley rather than a sixteenth century painting painted from life or based on a pre-existing image.

The Wroxton Abbey Portrait

The Wroxton Abbey Portrait
Called Lord Guildford Dudley
Unknown Artist
Oil on Panel
13 x 11 inches
© Private Collection

The third and final portrait is the more interesting of the three, due to it being exhibited publicly on at least two occasions as an image of Guildford Dudley. This portrait was also used by the artist Richard Burchett in 1854 as a basis for his depiction of Lord Guildford Dudley when producing the images of the royal Tudor figures for the Prince’s Chamber’s in the Palace of Westminster.[6]

Lord Guildford Dudley
Richard Burchett
1854
© Palace of Westminster

The original painting once again shows an image of a young gentleman, painted three-quarter length and holding a pair of gloves in his right hand, with his left hand on his hip. The sitter wears a black doublet with large white sleeves, embroidered with gold thread. Placed over his right shoulder, is a cape of dark fabric with fur and at his neck is a large circular ruff.

The earliest documentation regarding this image is the exhibition catalogue for the Art Treasures Exhibition of 1857 held in Manchester. The portrait is described in the catalogue as

item 383. Lord Guildford Dudley from the collection of Col North MP[7]

The painting again appears in the National Portrait Exhibition held at the South Kensington Museum in April 1866 where a description was given

Item 191. Lord Guildford Dudley. Colonel and Baroness North – Half-length, small life size, ruff, doublet and surecoat black with dark fur, white gold-embroidered sleeves, gloves in r hand. Panel 14 x 11 inches.[8]

The Colonel North MP listed as the owner of the painting is John North, also known as John Doyle, of Wroxton Abbey. Wroxton Abbey is a seventeenth-century manor house and was the home of the Pope and North family from 1677 until 1932, when it was leased to Trinity College. A sale was held of the contents of Wroxton Hall in May 1933 that included the portrait of Guildford Dudley matching the description of the portrait which appeared in the National Portraits Exhibition catalogue, displayed in the Garden Parlour.

Item 690. Small portrait on panel of Guildford Dudley, holding gloves in right hand. Believed to be the only known contemporary portrait.[9]

What is seen from the image of the portrait is that once again the sitter is wearing a costume that dates to the 1580’s rather than what would have been worn by Guildford Dudley during his lifetime. Richard Burchett also appears to notice this when creating his image of Guildford for the Palace of Westminster and has adapted his image to fit with a more consistent costume that Guildford would have worn.

On completion of the Wroxton Abbey sale, the portrait then passed into a private collection though was subsequently sold again at auction on 29 th September 1993.

As far as I am aware the three portraits discussed above are the only known portraits associated with Lord Guildford Dudley. As this article shows none contain any clues in favours of the sitter being positively identified as him and so Guildford Dudley remains faceless.

[1] Catalogue of pictures of David Holt Esquire of Manchester, 14 th July 1820

[4] Edwards, John Stephan. A Queen of a New Invention Portraits of Lady Jane Grey Dudley, Old John Publishing, 2015, Page 137-139

[6] Wallis, George. The Royal House of Tudor, Cundall and Fleming, 1866, Page 70


The Stowe House Portraits

During the early nineteenth century, a small number of portraits at Stowe House in Buckinghamshire were described as representing Lady Jane Grey.

Today, Stowe House is a Grade I listed building that is open to the public for tours and that also incorporates a private school. It was the former home of the Temple-Grenville family and George Nugent Temple-Grenville, who was created the 1 st Marquis of Buckingham in December of 1784. The house passed through descent down the family line. Various auctions of some of its contents took place due to financial issues, and the family eventually sold the property in 1921.

The Manuscript Room Miniature Portrait

Early in the nineteenth century houses across the country began to open their doors to visitors who were able to take a tour of the buildings for a small fee. A descriptive catalogue of Stowe House and Gardens was printed in 1817 and sold for the use of tourists.

Described in this catalogue and referred to as being displayed over the chimney in the Manuscript Room is a miniature portrait thought at that time to be a representation of Lady Jane Grey. The Catalogue reports that the miniature, along with several other miniature portraits, including one thought to depict Jane Seymour and another of Thomas Seymour,

Came into the possession of Mrs. Grenville from the collection of her grandfather Charles, Duke of Somerset.[1]

The Mrs Grenville mentioned is Elizabeth Grenville (1717-1769), daughter of Sir William Wyndham and his first wife Lady Catherine Seymour. Elizabeth married George Grenville (1712-1770) in 1749 and was mother to George Nugent-Temple Grenville 1 st Marques of Buckingham. She had inherited a small amount of money from her grandfather Charles Seymour, 6 th Duke of Somerset, and it is possible that she had also inherited the miniature portraits as well.

Called Lady Jane Grey by Robert Cooper
Taken From The Manuscript Room Miniature
(c)Heinz Archive London

No description of the miniature thought to depict Lady Jane Grey is given in the 1817 catalogue, but it was engraved by Robert Cooper (died 1828) in the early nineteenth century, along with the other two portraits thought to depict Jane and Thomas Seymour. These engravings survive today, and inscribed on each engraving beneath the image is a statement that the originals are in the possession of the Marquis of Buckingham at Stowe.

What is clearly seen from this engraving is that the miniature portrait thought in 1817 to depict Jane Grey is based on the pattern used to create NPG4451, the Hastings portrait and the Jersey Portrait. The distinctive crown headed brooch is seen in the engraving of the Manuscript Room Miniature worn pinned to the front of the sitter’s bodice, and this brooch also appears in NPG4451, the Hastings portrait, the Jersey portrait and the Van de Passe Engraving. The brooch was used in 1997 as the focus for the reidentification of NPG4451 as a portrait of Katherine Parr. Today, all portraits relating to this pattern are now thought to be a depiction of Katherine Parr rather than Jane Grey, and therefore this rules out Jane Grey as the possible sitter in the Stowe House miniature portrait.

It does appear that this miniature was sold on March 15 th , 1849 as part of the large thirty-seven day auction of the contents of Stowe House facilitated by Messrs. Christies and Manson. It appears in the original catalogue for this sale, under the miniatures section referring to Royal Personages.

Item 3. The Lady Jane Grey, in a crimson dress.[2]

An annotated copy of this catalogue in the collection of the Heinz Archive, London, records the buyer of the miniature as “Lagrange or La Grange.”[3] I have been unable to locate any other information regarding the current whereabouts of this image.

The West Stairs Portrait

The second portrait to be discussed appears in the 1849 sales catalogue for the contents of Stowe House and is described as:

Item 372. A portrait called Lady Jane Grey[4]

This portrait was displayed on the west staircase and was documented in the sales catalogue as being purchased by a R. Berkeley, Esq, who also purchased several other paintings at this sale. As the portrait is documented as “called” Lady Jane Grey in the catalogue description, this suggests that some doubt was expressed in 1848 about the identity of the sitter.

Called Lady Jane Grey (c) British Museum

Robert Berkeley Esq (1794-1874) of Spetchley Park, near Worcester, was a descendant of an aristocratic family dating back to the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The Berkeley family owned a large amount of land including Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, which still belongs to living descendants today.

An engraving dating to the nineteenth century that is now in the collection of the British Museum depicts a portrait of a lady wearing clothing that dates to a period much later than that of Jane Grey’s lifetime. This engraving is inscribed at the bottom in pencil. The inscription identifies the sitter as “Lady Jane Grey/ The Marquis of Buckingham/ Private plate”. The Engraving was bequeathed to the British Museum in 1868 from the collection of a Felix Slade (1788-1868), who is known to have been a keen collector, acquiring a large collection of books and prints during his lifetime.

Called Lady Jane Grey (c) Private Collection

Email communication with the Berkeley estate has confirmed that a portrait matching this engraving and thought to represent Lady Jane Grey is still in their collection today and appears for the first time in an inventory taken in 1893.

What can be seen from the photographic image of this painting is that the lady depicted most definitely dates to a later period than that of Lady Jane Grey’s lifetime. The costume the sitter is wearing is not consistent with the style worn in England during the period in which Jane Grey was alive. The portrait dates to the 1650’s when the large ruffs worn across Europe during the earlier periods were being replaced with the plainer broad lace or linen collar. The elaborate French fashions worn previously during the reigns of James I and Charles I were by this later period becoming more sombre in style and colour.

This portrait also appears continental in style and is probably Dutch in origin. The west stair portrait is close in comparison to a number of portraits by Netherlandish artists such as Rembrandt van Rijh (1606-1669) depicting female sitters in the same manner and a similar style of costume. Though difficult to see in the photographic image, the hood worn by the sitter is similar in style to that seen in several portraits of Dutch origin dating to the middle of the seventeenth century. Catrina Hooghsaet wears a similar hood without the attached vail in her portrait by Rembrandt van Rijn in 1657. During the 1660’s, in England, Ladies began to embrace the fashion of wearing their hair curled and pinned up with the use of jewels as embellishment rather than wearing a hood that had been popular in the past.

  • Catrina Hooghsaet by Rembrandt van Rijn 1657 (c) Museum of Cardiff
  • Portrait of a Lady-British School c. 1660 (c) Private Collection

How the West Stairs portrait became known as a portrait of Lady Jane Grey is unknown, and it is highly unlikely that this portrait was painted to represent Jane Grey in the first place. It is possible that her name was simply attached to the portrait due to the plainness of dress depicted or that the frame used for this portrait, which also includes the inscription identifying the sitter as Jane Grey, was simply reused from another portrait thought to represent her. It can now be removed from the list of potential likenesses as it dates to a period of some ninety years after her death and therefore cannot be an authentic likeness.

The East Hall Portrait

The third and final portrait to be discussed appears in the 1817 descriptive catalogue from Stowe House. This book records another portrait thought to be Jane Grey in the “passage of the east hall” at Stowe. The portrait is simply referred to as:

No further description is given of the painting. Since some of the other portraits are explicitly described in the catalogue as “full length,” and this one is not, it does suggest the possibility that this painting was less than full length, perhaps three quarter, half, or bust length. The use of the term “original” also indicates that in 1817 this portrait was deemed to be old.

As yet, I have been unable to track the current whereabouts of this portrait. I have been able to locate a further two references to a portrait of Lady Jane Grey in the collection of The Marquis of Buckingham that could possibly be this particular painting, however. These do give us more details as to what the portrait actually looked like, and when investigated further, these also give us some indication as to whether or not this portrait was a painting of Lady Jane Grey.

The first reference appears in the appendix of Richard Davey’s 1909 biography on Jane Grey. Davey describes an engraving of the portrait as:

Lady Jane Grey. From a portrait in the possession of the Marquis of Buckingham. She wears a velvet gown open at the throat to display a double chain with a pendant cross. On table, large gold chalice.[6]

Since this description is inconsistent with the West Stair portrait and Manuscript Room Miniature, also thought to be Jane Grey, it is possible that the source used by the unidentified engraver was the “original portrait in the passage of the east hall.” The description given by Davey of the East Hall Portrait is of interest as he does give us a little more information as to what this image looked like.

Another clue appears in 1917, in a magazine article published in the Musical Courier, which discusses the discovery of the then lost Pryor’s Bank portrait thought to represent Lady Jane Grey. The article reports:

A portrait somewhat similar, in which this same chalice figures, is in the collection of the Marques of Buckingham.[7]

From the above descriptions, we see that the East Hall Portrait was probably similar in look to the Pryor’s Bank portrait. Since no image has as yet been located, I am unable to discuss the similarities in-depth. However, what is seen from the descriptions is that both the Pryor’s Bank Portrait and the East Hall portrait included a depiction of a chalice within the composition.

It is possible that an authentic portrait of Jane Grey could have been painted that included the use of a chalice within the composition. This does not, however, fit with the general style of other portraits produced of female figures painted during her lifetime. A number of portraits from this period show that females where generally depicted by artists in front of a plain background or cloth. This was done to enable the depiction of the sitter to be the most prominent part of the painting. Latin inscriptions that identified the sitter age and date in which the portrait was painted were generally added by the artist, and in some cases a motto or coat of arms as well. Some paintings do survive which also demonstrate that female sitters were also depicted within a domestic surrounding that included objects within the composition. These paintings including one of Princess Elizabeth, now in the Royal Collection, and another of Lady Mary Dacre. They are rare and are not as common as those depicting a sitter in front of a plain background.

Since the description of the East Hall portrait mentions the use of the chalice, I personally err on the side of caution when looking at this information. As discussed in previous articles, the iconography of Jane Grey is a difficult and complex subject due to the large number of portraits and the little information surviving about them.

It does appear that over the years several paintings once identified as being of Jane Grey have turned out to be representations of Mary Magdalene when studied further. As discussed in my article on the Pryor’s Bank portrait, the use of the golden chalice in the iconography of Mary Magdalene was popular and was used along with other artefacts depicted in the paintings as a form of symbolism. Mary Magdalene was commonly portrayed alone, in isolation reading, writing or playing the lute. The chalice was commonly used to symbolise the jar of oil used to wash the feet of Jesus. The Symbolism used within depictions of the Magdalene is similar to the description given by Roger Ascham in his book Učitelj škole of Jane sat alone at Bradgate reading Plato. This description was commonly used during the nineteenth and twentieth century by authors and artists when discussing and depicting Jane to demonstrate that her love of learning had isolated her from her family, who Ascham notes were out hunting at the time of his visit.

Althorp Portrait Called Lady Jane Grey in 1817 Engraving appeared in Bibliographical Decameron by Thomas Frognall Dibdin

One possible reason for the number of portraits depicting the Magdalene being confused for that of Jane Grey is the publication in 1817 of the engraved image of a painting that is known today as the Althorp Portrait. That image appeared in a book entitled Bibliographical Decameron by Thomas Frognall Dibdin (1776-1847). That engraving was based on a portrait in the collection of Spencer family at Althorp house which at that time was thought to be of Lady Jane Grey. That portrait also incorporated the use of a golden chalice within the composition. Today, it is now thought that this painting is a depiction of Mary Magdalene. In 1817, Dibdin stated in the footnote of his book that,

This is the only legitimate portrait of Lady Jane Grey that has yet been made public[8]

This then allowed others who may have owned a similar portrait depicting a sixteenth century lady close to Jane’s age, reading and with a chalice, to then attach her name to their painting.

Until the East Hall portrait is located, it cannot be known for certain whether It is a possible image of Lady Jane Grey or another portrait of Mary Magdalene that Jane’s name had been associated with.

The Jersey Portrait

Stowe house had a fourth portrait in its collection that in time was to become associated with Lady Jane Grey. It is known today as the Jersey portrait.

The Jersey Portrait
Katherine Parr
(c) The Earldom of Jersey Trust

This portrait was purchased from the Pryor’s Bank sale on May 3 rd 1841, where it was described in the catalogue as:

Item 509. A panel painting, Queen Mary I., in carved guilt frame[9]

The painting remained in the Stowe collection, where it was hung in the Private Dining Room. It is described in the Stowe auction catalogue as:

290 Queen Mary, in a black dress, with richly ornamented sleeves-(Holbein)[10]

The annotated catalogue records the buyer of this portrait as a Mr J. Oxford Ryman, and within the same year of the sale this painting ended up in the collection of the Countess of Jersey. Initially it was thought to have been destroyed by fire in 1949, but recent research completed by John Stephan Edwards has confirmed that this portrait did indeed survive the fire.

The Jersey Portraits identity as an image of Lady Jane Grey originates with the purchase of NPG4451 by the National Portrait Gallery, London, in 1965. Newspaper clippings from the late 1960’s show that almost immediately Roy Strong, Director of the National Portrait Gallery, compared NPG4451 to the Van de Passe engraving, thought at that time to be the only authentic image of Jane Grey, and a portrait in the collection of Lord Hastings, which had been associated with Jane’s name for many years. By 1969, Roy Strong published his book Tudor and Jacobean Portraits, in which he also discussed the Jersey portrait under the heading Authentic and Possibly Authentic Portraits. Strong noted similarities between the Jersey portrait and the other images connected to NPG4451 and tentatively suggested that the Jersey portrait was also related to this set and must therefore also be another image of Jane Grey. At that time, Strong also reported that the “face is that of a much older woman.”[11] He dismissed the identity of it being a portrait of Queen Mary I, however, and tentatively put this down to bad restoration. He also noted that the Jersey portrait had been destroyed by fire and that further research was unable to take place.

Research produced and published by Susan James in January 1996[12] has now established that some of the jewels worn by the sitter in NPG4451 appear in inventories made of Katherine Parr’s jewels in 1550. By June of 1996, the National Portrait Gallery then opted to reidentify NPG4451 as a portrait of Katherine Parr and not Lady Jane Grey, as all evidence indicated that the sitter depicted was most likely to be Katherine Parr. This in turn allowed the other portraits connected with this pattern to also be reidentified as Katherine Parr.

UPDATE: 20th November 2019

The West Stair Portrait is to be sold from the Berkeley collection on 11th December 2019 by Sotheby’s Auction House. The portrait is referred to as ‘A Portrait of A Lady, Manner of Rembrandt’. Materials are listed as oil on panel and measurements are given as 28 1/4 x 22 inches.

[1] Stowe A Description of The House and Gardens, 1817, page 52

[2] Catalogue of The Contents of Stowe House, Messrs. Christie and Manson, 1848, page130

[4] Foster, Henry, The Stowe Catalogue Priced and Annotated, 1848, page178

[5] Stowe A Description of The House and Gardens, 1817, page 36

[6] Davey, Richard, Nine Days Queen, Lady Jane Grey and Her Times, 1909, page 362

[7] Musical Courier, Namara Discovers Valuable Portrait, 8 th November 1917, page 43

[8] Dubdin, Thomas, The Bibliographical Decameron, 1817, page 250

[9] Mr Deacon, Pryor’s Bank Sales Catalouge, 3 rd May 1841, page33

[10] Foster, Henry, The Stowe Catalogue Priced and Annotated, 1848, Page176

[11] Strong, Roy, Tudor and Jacobean Portraits, 1969, volume I, page 78-79

[12] James, Susan, Lady Jane Grey of Queen Katheryn Parr, Burlington Magazine, vol. 138, January 1996, Page 20-24


Pogledajte video: Paul Delaroche: Lady Jane Grey. Exhibitions. The National Gallery, London (Juli 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Avidor

    Thank you for the information, now I will not admit such a mistake.

  2. Micheal

    Kakva divna poruka

  3. Tazshura

    No, it's the opposite.

  4. Ayers

    Potvrđujem. Slazem se sa svim gore navedenim. Hajde da prodiskutujemo ovo pitanje.

  5. Shad

    U njemu je nešto. Sada je sve jasno, hvala na objašnjenju.

  6. Tuzahn

    The nice message

  7. Zair

    I šta je tu smešno?



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