Priča

Šta je nebo?


Joanne M. Pierce / Razgovor

Kad član porodice ili prijatelj umre, često se nađemo u razmišljanju o pitanju "Gdje su oni sada?" Kao smrtna bića, to je pitanje od krajnjeg značaja za svakog od nas.

Različite kulturne grupe i različiti pojedinci unutar njih odgovaraju brojnim, često konfliktnim odgovorima na pitanja o životu nakon smrti. Za mnoge, ova pitanja su ukorijenjena u ideji nagrade za dobro (raj) i kazne za zle (pakao), gdje se zemaljske nepravde konačno ispravljaju.

Međutim, ti zajednički korijeni ne jamče suvremeni dogovor o prirodi, pa čak ni postojanju pakla i raja. Papa Franjo je podigao katoličke obrve nad nekim od svojih komentari o nebu , nedavno je rekao jednom dječaku da je njegov pokojni otac, ateista, bio s Bogom na nebu jer je, svojim pažljivim roditeljstvom, „imao dobro srce“.

Dakle, koja je kršćanska ideja o „nebu“?

Verovanja u ono što se dešava pri smrti

Prvi kršćani vjerovali su da će se Isus Krist, uskrsnuo iz mrtvih nakon raspeća, uskoro vratiti kako bi dovršio ono što je započeo svojim propovijedanjem: uspostavljanje Kraljevstvo Božje . Ovaj drugi Hristov dolazak okončao bi napore ujedinjenja čitavog čovječanstva u Kristu i rezultirao konačnim uskrsnućem mrtvih i moralnim sudom svih ljudskih bića.

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Neki kršćani vjeruju da će, kad se Krist vrati, i mrtvi ustati u obnovljenim tijelima. (CC BY 2.0)

Sredinom prvog stoljeća naše ere, kršćani su postali zabrinuti za sudbinu članova svojih crkava koji su već umrli prije ovog drugog dolaska.

Neki od najranijih dokumenata u kršćanskom Novom zavjetu, poslanice ili pisma koja je napisao apostol Pavao, nudila su odgovor. Mrtvi su jednostavno pali zaspati, objasnili su. Kad je Krist vraća, i mrtvi bi ustajali u obnovljenim tijelima, a sudio bi im sam Krist. Nakon toga će zauvijek biti sjedinjeni s njim.

Nekoliko teolozi u prvim vekovima hrišćanstva se složilo. No, rastao je konsenzus da su duše umrlih držane u nekoj vrsti stanje čekanja do kraja svijeta, kada bi se ponovo spojili sa svojim tijelima, vaskrsli u savršenijem obliku.

Iluminirani rukopis, Danteova božanska komedija. (Javna domena)

Obećanje vječnog života

Poslije Rimski car Konstantin legalizovano hrišćanstvo početkom četvrtog veka, broj hrišćana je enormno porastao. Milioni su se preobratili širom Carstva, a do kraja stoljeća stara rimska državna religija bila je zabranjena.

Na osnovu Evanđelja, biskupi i teolozi naglasili su da je obećanje vječnog života na nebu otvoreno samo za krštene - to jest, one koji su prošli ritualno potapanje u vodu koja je očistila dušu od grijeha i označila nečiji ulaz u crkvu. Svi drugi bili su osuđeni na vječno odvajanje od Boga i kaznu za grijeh.

U ovom novom kršćanskom carstvu krštenje se sve više primjenjivalo na dojenčad. Neki su teolozi osporili ovu praksu, jer dojenčad još nije mogla činiti grijehe. Ali na kršćanskom zapadu vjera u „ istočni grijeh ” - prevladao je grijeh Adama i Eve kada nisu poslušali Božju zapovijed u Rajskom vrtu („ Pad ”).

Slijedeći učenje sveca iz četvrtog stoljeća Augustine, Zapadni teolozi u petom stoljeću naše ere vjerovali su da su čak i djeca rođena s grijehom Adama i Eve koji su pokvarili njihov duh i volju.

Ali ova je doktrina postavila zabrinjavajuće pitanje: Što je s djecom koja su umrla prije krštenja moglo biti davano?

U početku su teolozi učili da im je duša otišla u pakao, ali su patili vrlo malo, ako su uopće patili.

Koncept Limbo nastalo iz ove ideje. Pape i teolozi u 13. stoljeću učili da duše nekrštene bebe ili male djece uživaju u stanju prirodne sreće na „ rub”Pakla, ali im je, poput onih koji su strože kažnjeni u samom paklu, uskraćeno blaženstvo Božje prisutnosti.

Silazak Krista u Limbo, Andrea di Bonaiuto, 14 th veka. (Javna domena)

Vrijeme presude

U vrijeme rata ili kuge u antici i srednjem vijeku, zapadni su kršćani često tumačili društveni kaos kao znak smaka svijeta. Međutim, kako su vjekovi prolazili, Drugi Hristov dolazak općenito je postao udaljeniji događaj za većinu kršćana, koji se još uvijek čekao, ali potisnuo u neodređenu budućnost. Umjesto toga, kršćanska teologija više se usredotočila na trenutak individualne smrti.

Presuda, ocjena moralnog stanja svakog čovjeka, nije više odgađana do kraja svijeta. Hristos je svaku dušu prvi put pojedinačno sudio neposredno nakon smrti ("Posebni" sud), kao i pri Drugom dolasku (Konačni ili Opći sud).

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Strašni sud Stefana Lochnera. (Javna domena)

Rituali na samrtnoj postelji ili "Posljednji obredi" razvili su se iz ranijih obreda za bolesne i pokajnike, a većina je imala priliku priznati svoje grijehe svećeniku, biti pomazani i primiti "posljednju" pričest prije nego što su posljednji put izdahnuli.

Srednjovjekovni kršćani molili su se da budu zaštićeni od iznenadne ili neočekivane smrti, jer su se bojali da samo krštenje nije dovoljno za direktan ulazak u nebo bez ovih Posljednjih obreda.

Još jedna doktrina se razvila. Neki su umrli i dalje krivi za manje ili laki grijesi , poput uobičajenih tračeva, sitnih krađa ili manjih laži koje nisu potpuno iscrpile dušu Božje milosti. Nakon smrti, ove duše bi prvo bile "očišćene" od svakog preostalog grijeha ili krivice u duhovnom stanju zvanom Čistilište. Nakon ovog duhovnog čišćenja, obično vizualiziranog kao vatra, oni bi bili dovoljno čisti da uđu u nebo.

Samo oni koji su bili izuzetno vrli, poput svetaca ili onih koji su primili posljednje obrede, mogli su direktno ući u nebo i Božje prisustvo.

Slike neba

U antici, prvim stoljećima naše ere, kršćansko nebo dijelilo je određene karakteristike i s judaizmom i s helenističkom vjerskom mišlju o zagrobnom životu čestitih. Jedan je bio gotovo fizički odmor i osvježenje kao poslije pustinja putovanje, često popraćeno opisima gozbi, fontana ili rijeka. U Bibliji Knjiga Otkrivenja , simbolički opis kraja svijeta, rijeka koja teče kroz Božji Novi Jeruzalem nazvana je rijekom "vode života". Međutim, u Evanđelje po Luki , proklete je mučila žeđ.

Druga je bila slika svjetlosti. Rimljani i Jevreji mislili su na prebivalište zlih kao mjesto tame i sjene, ali božansko prebivalište bilo je ispunjeno jarkim svjetlom. Nebo je također bilo nabijeno pozitivnim emocijama: mirom, radošću, ljubavlju i blaženstvom duhovnog ispunjenja koje su kršćani počeli nazivati Beatific Vision , Božje prisustvo.

Hrista proslavljenog na sudu nebeskom od Fra Angelico (javno domen)

Vizionari i pjesnici koristili su razne dodatne slike: procvjetale livade, boje izvan opisa, drveće ispunjeno voćem, društvo i razgovor sa porodicom ili drugi u bijeloj haljini među blagoslovljenima . Svijetli anđeli stajali su iza blistavog Božjeg prijestola i pjevali hvalu u izvrsnim melodijama.

Protestantska reformacija, započeta 1517. godine, naglo bi prekinula s Rimokatoličkom crkvom u zapadnoj Europi u 16. stoljeću. Iako bi se obje strane raspravljale o postojanju Čistilišta, ili o tome da li je samo nekima Bog predodredio da uđu u nebo, postojanje i opća priroda samog neba nisu bili pitanje.

Nebo kao mjesto Boga

Danas teolozi nude različita mišljenja o prirodi neba. Anglikanski C. S. Lewis napisao je da čak i jedan kućni ljubimci moglo bi se priznati, ujedinjeni u ljubavi sa svojim vlasnicima, kao što su vlasnici sjedinjeni u Kristu krštenjem.

Nakon devetnaestog veka Papa Pio IX , Čak je to naučio isusovac Karl Rahner nehrišćani a nevjernici bi se još mogli spasiti kroz Krista ako bi živjeli prema sličnim vrijednostima, ideja koja se sada nalazi u Katolički katekizam .

Sama Katolička crkva odbacila je ideju Limba, prepuštajući sudbinu nekrštene djece “ milost Božija . ” Jedna tema ostaje konstantna: Nebo je Božje prisustvo u društvu drugih koji su se odazvali Božjem pozivu u svom životu.


Heaven

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste poslali i odlučiti da li želite da prepravite članak.

Heaven, u mnogim religijama prebivalište Boga ili bogova, kao i anđela, oboženih ljudi, blagoslovljenih mrtvih i drugih nebeskih bića. Često se zamišlja kao prostranstvo koje obuhvaća cijelu zemlju, proteže se nad glavom poput nadstrešnice, kupole ili svoda i obuhvaća nebo i gornju atmosferu Sunce, Mjesec i zvijezde i transcendentno područje s onu stranu.


Istorija i zagrobni život

Čini se da su određene misli toliko ukorijenjene u ljudskoj psihi da se čine urođenim. Ideja o nadljudskoj moći ili moćima, koja je na kraju odgovorna za svemir i čovječanstvo, kroz istoriju je bila gotovo univerzalna.

Iz zatamnjenja patrijarhalnog doba i nevjerojatne patnje pobožnog čovjeka došlo je uvjerenje da postoji carstvo izvan smrti u kojem zli prestaju uznemiravati, a ondje umorni miruju ” (Job 3:17) . Stari Egipćani izgradili su svoje grobnice pripremajući se za život nakon toga, a naši Indijanci imali su svoje sretno lovište. ”

Čak i među raštrkanom populacijom današnjeg svijeta#8217s tvrdoglavo postoji pojam da u zagrobnom životu postoje buduće nagrade i kazne. Ako pretpostavimo da je ljudski um razumno razuman, mora zaključiti da su ti pojmovi u osnovi aksiomatski.


Nebo će imati biserne kapije, zlatne ulice i svjetlo Gospodnje

„Dvanaest kapija bilo je dvanaest bisera: svaka pojedinačna vrata bila su od jednog bisera. A ulica grada bila je od čistog zlata, poput prozirnog stakla ”(Otkrivenje 21:21).

Zlato i biseri su jedne od najdragocenijih stvari na svetu. Sada zamislite da živite na mjestu gdje su kapije i ulice napravljene od ovih dragocjenih dragulja. Slava i ljepota takvog mjesta očaravaju nas i ostavljaju bez riječi, jer čak ni najbogatiji čovjek na svijetu ne može priuštiti da napravi čak i mali grad sa bisernim vratima i zlatnim putevima.

Otkrivenje 21 takođe kaže da na Nebu više neće biti sunca ni meseca. Ona će biti obasjana Božijom slavom i Jagnjetovom svjetlošću. Svetlo će biti apsolutno jako i blistavo.


Historija hvalospjeva: 'Kada svi dođemo u nebo '

Filadelfijanke Eliza E. Hewitt (1851-1920) i Emily D. Wilson (1865-1942) zajedno su se udružile kao pjesnikinja i muzičarka kako bi nam dale gospel pjesmu koja na jedinstven američki način oslikava preporodni duh s kraja devetnaestog stoljeća.

Carlton R. Young ispravno primjećuje da bi se ova pjesma trebala smjestiti u njezinu „uniju oživljavanja i adventizma u većem dijelu veslijevskog propovijedanja i obožavanja nakon građanskog rata“ (Young, 699). Adventizam je bio proizvod Drugog velikog buđenja u prvoj polovini devetnaestog stoljeća koji je vrhunac doživio 1840 -ih. Njegov zagovornik, William Miller (1782-1849), baptistički propovjednik, zastupao je uvjerenje da će se drugi dolazak Isusa Krista dogoditi negdje između 1843. i 1844. Iako se to nije dogodilo, duh adventizma nastavio se do kraja veka i bilo je evidentno u mnogim evanđeoskim pesmama tog doba.

Mnogi čitaoci su možda odrasli pjevajući ovu i druge pjesme na sličnu temu tokom okupljanja u nedjeljnoj školi, nedjeljnih večernjih službi ili oživljavanja. Srodne pjesme uključuju „When the Roll Is Called Up Yonder“ (1899) Jamesa M. Blacka (1856-1938), „Shall We Gather at the River“ (1865) Roberta Lowryja (1826-1899) i „O that Will Be Glory for Me ”(1900) Charlesa H. Gabriela (1856-1932). Nemojte pogriješiti, hvalospjevi koji su se obraćali nebu nisu bili ništa novo. Mnoge himne osamnaestog veka Čarlsa Veslija i drugih spominjale su nebo kao naše konačno odredište. Gospel pjesma iz devetnaestog stoljeća, međutim, dodala je duhovni žar potkrijepljen muzičkom vitalnošću koja je ovim pjesmama dala osjećaj neizmjernosti i hitnosti koji do sada nisu doživjeli.

Metodisti i baptisti bili su dominantni izvori ovih pjesama koje su često bile uključene u zbirke namijenjene upotrebi u nedjeljnim školama i preporodima. Iako usklađena s prezbiterijancima, pjesma Elize Hewitt bila je proizvod oživljavanja gdje je autor „redovno prisustvovao sastancima Metodističkog kampa“ u Ocean Groveu, New Jersey (Reynolds, 194, citirano u Young, 699). Ovi „sezonski i dugotrajni sastanci [bili su] tipični za kampove u Wesleyanu koji su nastali, a neki su nastavili i ranije u stoljeću, kako bi utjelovili unutrašnji duh sastanka logora“ (Young, 699). Događaji u zatvorenom prostoru bili su produžeci sastanaka seoskih logora početkom devetnaestog veka, gde su uslovi bili mnogo primitivniji. Šatori su podignuti, a grubo izrezane klupe postavljene su kako bi odvojile muškarce od žena. Na tim sastancima u kampu početkom devetnaestog stoljeća, posebnosti vjeroispovijesti ustupile su mjesto sveobuhvatnijim crkvenim okupljanjima koja su uključivala baptiste, metodiste, prezbiterijance, pa čak i kvekere (Lorenz, 17-19). Još je zapanjujuće na jugu antebelluma bilo učešće afroamerikanaca i bijelaca. Kako se navodi u jednom izvještaju, “Crnci su bili život logora. Devet od deset njih imalo bi milozvučan glas za pjevanje, molitvu i vikanje, na velikoj udaljenosti od logora ”(G. W. Henry, citirano u Lorenz, 31).

Iako su sastanci krajem devetnaestog stoljeća u Ocean Groveu bili u manje primitivnim uvjetima, oni su i dalje bili rustikalni s jednostavnim kolibama i vikendicama koje zamjenjuju šatore, bili su i pripitomljeniji, iako je Duh i dalje bio očit na načine koji možda nisu bili prisutni ili čak dopušteno u okvirima crkvenih svetišta u nedjelju ujutro. Carlton Young opisuje okruženje pod kojim je Eliza Hewitt komponovala ovu pjesmu:

Autor i skladatelj u Ocean Groveu su vizualno, vizualno i čujno doživjeli uzbudljivo, iako pažljivo inscenirano, iščekivanje Pavlovog obećanja članovima solunske skupštine. „[Mi] ćemo zajedno s njima biti zarobljeni u oblacima kako bismo se sreli s Gospodinom u zraku, pa ćemo zauvijek biti s Gospodinom“ (1. Solunjanima 4: 17). Ovi kršćani iz prvog stoljeća, poput Ocean Grovera nakon što su danima čuli propovijedanje propovijedanja, imali su povišenu tjeskobu zbog svog statusa zbog Kristovog skorog povratka (Young, 699).

Udruženje Ocean Grove Camp Meeting ostaje živo i zdravo s aktivnim programom i mogućnostima za šatore. Vidi https://www.oceangrove.org.

Strofe "Kad svi dođemo u nebo" prepune su biblijskih aluzija:

U strofi 1, izraz „u kurijama svijetlim i blagoslovljenima / on će nam pripremiti mjesto“ preformuliše Jovan 14: 2: „U kući moga Oca ima mnogo stanova: da nije tako, ja bih rekao sam ti. Idem vam pripremiti mjesto. ” (KJV).

Stanza 2 nas podsjeća da na nebu svjetlo zamjenjuje “sjene”: “i gradu nije bilo potrebno ni sunce, ni mjesec, da u njemu zasja: jer ga je slava Božja prosvijetlila, a Jagnje je svjetlo od toga “(Otkrivenje 21:23, KJV). Nadalje, "uzdasi" tuge i boli bit će ostavljeni iza sebe: "I Bog će izbrisati sve suze s njihovih očiju i više neće biti smrti, ni tuge, ni plača, niti će više biti boli: jer nekadašnje stvari prolaze “(Otkrivenje 21: 4, KJV).

U trećoj strofi pjesnik napominje da se „samo jednim pogledom na njega u slavi / hoće li mu se životni trud vratiti“ ova fraza parafrazira 1. Petrova 4:13, „Ali radujte se, budući da ste sudionici u Kristovim patnjama, kada slava će se otkriti, i vi ćete se radovati s velikom radošću ”(KJV).

Stanza 4 spominje „biserna vrata“ i „ulice od zlata“, slike jasno izvučene iz Otkrivenja 21:21: „A dvanaest vrata bilo je dvanaest bisera: svaka nekoliko vrata bila su od jednog bisera; a ulica grada bila je od čistog zlata kao prozirno staklo ”(KJV).

Teološki postoji nejasnoća u vezi s frazom: „Kad smo sve dospjeti u raj. . . ” To bi mogla biti metodistička upotreba "svega", koja je izrasla iz arminovske inkluzivnosti Božje milosti u veslijanskoj tradiciji nasuprot "ograničenom pomirenju" kalvinizma. To bi također mogla biti više egzistencijalna izjava o onima okupljenim u Ocean Groveu s pretpostavkom da su svi otišli u nebo. Više nego vjerojatno, a ne nijansirana teološka tvrdnja, ovo je eshatološka nada rođena iz revivalističkog emocionalizma i hiperbole.

Pjesma je prvi put uvrštena u Pentecostal Pohvale (1898), kompilacija poznatog kompozitora gospel pesama, Williama J. Kirkpatricka (1838-1921) i Henryja L. Gilmoura (1836-1920), koji je decenijama bio direktor hora na sastancima logora.

Eliza Edmunds Hewitt je cijeli život živjela u Philadelphiji. Bila je učiteljica svog razreda u ženskoj normalnoj školi, gdje je predavala nekoliko godina. Hewitt je bila istaknuta u pokretu za nedjeljne škole, posvećujući vrijeme mladosti u Sjevernom domu za djecu bez prijatelja u prezviterijanskoj crkvi Calvin, bila je nadzornica nedjeljne škole. Uprkos spinalnoj bolesti koja ju je zadržala nekoliko godina, studirala je englesku književnost i napisala nekoliko stotina tekstova. Najviše objavljenih njezinih pjesama, pored "Kad svi dođemo u nebo", uključuju "Danas u mojoj duši ima sunca" (1887) i "Više o Isusu bih li znao" (1887), posljednja pjesma se pojavila u The Cokesbury Hymnal (1923, br. 94). Napisala je tekstove za neke od istaknutih kompozitora gospel pesama tog doba, uključujući BD Ackleyja (1872-1958), Charlesa H. Gabriela, ES Lorenza (1854-1942), Homera Rodeheavera (1880-1955) i Johna R. Sweneyja (1837-1899).

Emily Divine Wilson (1865-1942) je takođe bila doživotna filadelfijka. Supruga metodističkog ministra, često je sa suprugom Johnom G. Wilsonom išla u Ocean Grove. U zapisniku Metodičke konferencije u Philadelphiji navedeno je:

Gospođa Wilson bila je priznata inspiracija njenog cijenjenog supruga. Bila je voljena od strane zajednica u kojima se crkve služe. Njene muzičke sposobnosti bile su veliki doprinos lokalnoj crkvi, zajedno sa sposobnošću u dramskoj umjetnosti (Leon T. Moore, citirano u Reynolds, 465).

Naziv melodije HEAVEN urednik časopisa pripisao je Wilsonovoj muzici Baptist Hymnal (1956). O ovoj pjesmi, Carlton R. Young bilježi: „Nedjeljna marševska pjesma prikazuje crkvu, njenu misiju i ulogu vjernika koji napreduju prema cilju. . . To je koristan žanr kršćanske glazbe u kojem se vjernici uvjeravaju da se crkva kreće, bez obzira na stvarnost ”(Young, 699-700). Sljedeća izvedba je originalna verzija kvarteta (preuzeto iz Krstiteljska pjesma, 1991) koji prikazuje nezavisne niže glasove koji u refrenu ponavljaju tekst melodijske linije, karakteristične za mnoge revijalne pjesme današnjice.

Daljnje čitanje i izvori:

Ellen Jane Lorenz, Slava, Aleluja! Priča o duhovnom kampu (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1978).

William J. Reynolds, Pratitelj baptističke pjesme (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1976).

Carlton R. Young, Pratitelj The United Methodist Hymnal (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1993.).


Nebo je za Real (2014)

Prema Nebo je za Real istinita priča, u četvrtak, 27. februara 2003., Colton Burpo, tada star tri godine i deset mjeseci, požalio se majci Sonji da ga boli stomak. U to vrijeme njegovi roditelji nisu znali, to je bio prvi znak upale slijepog crijeva. Sonja ga je odvela lekaru, koji joj je rekao da je to stomačni grip. Do sljedećeg jutra osjećao se bolje. Colton, njegova majka i njegova starija sestra Cassie otišli su toga dana da se sastanu sa Coltonovim ocem, pastorom Toddom Burpom, koji je već otputovao u Greeley, Colorado, gdje je trebao imati sastanak okružnog odbora za crkvu Wesleyan (putovanje je imalo dvobojna svrha i nije bio samo odmor kao na filmu). Posjetili su Paviljon leptira (na slici ispod). Kasnije tog dana, dok je još bio u Greeleyu, stanje Toddovog trogodišnjeg sina drastično se pogoršalo, na kraju je dječaka srušio u operacijsku salu boreći se za život.


Kao što se vidi na filmu (lijevo), Colton Burpo i njegova porodica posjetili su Paviljon leptira u Westminsteru, Colorado 1. marta 2003. (desno), na dan kada se Coltonovo stanje pogoršalo.

Je li Colton zaista držao pauka?

Jesu li Todd Burpo i njegova obitelj bili financijski stabilni?

Ne baš. U Nebo je za Real U knjizi, pravi Todd Burpo spominje da je godina prije Coltonove hitne operacije bila kamenita, s ozljedama i bolestima koje su uključivale slomljenu nogu, dvije operacije, kamenje u bubregu i zastrašivanje od raka. Kaže da je porodični bankovni račun bio iscrpljen do te mjere da je skoro mogao čuti "zvukove usisavanja" kada su izjave stigle poštom. Taman kad je Toddova slomljena noga konačno bila gotovo iza njega i činilo se da su stvari počele skretati, brzo su se našli u bolnici na skoro dvije sedmice boravka nakon Coltonovog puknuća slijepog crijeva. Nakon što je Colton otpušten, suočili su se s hrpom nakupljenih računa koji su iznosili oko 23.000 dolara, a usput ih je bilo još. Porodica, prijatelji, prijatelji prijatelja i poznanici počeli su im slati novac, što im je značajno pomoglo.


Porodica Burpo neposredno pre objavljivanja filma. U smjeru kazaljke na satu: Todd, Colton, Cassie, Sonja i Colby (rođeni 4. oktobra 2004.). Donja: Todova crkva, Crossroads Wesleyan.

Ne. Kao što navodi u knjizi, plaća njegovog pastora bila je mala. Glavni izvor prihoda porodice bio je posao nadzemnih garažnih vrata kojim je upravljao Todd. Takođe je služio kao dobrovoljni vatrogasac i trener u rvanju u srednjoj školi.

Koje su kršćanske vjeroispovijesti Burposi?

Burposi su protestanti. Jedna od velikih razlika između protestanata i katolika, na primjer, je ta što protestanti negiraju univerzalni autoritet Pape i vide Bibliju kao jedini izvor otkrivene istine.

Je li zaista puknuće slijepo crijevo dovelo Coltona u hitnu?

Da. U početku, lokalni liječnik u bolnici u Burpovom rodnom gradu Imperial, Nebraska isključio je upala slijepog crijeva. Nakon što je čekao da se Coltonovo stanje poboljša, njegov otac, pastor Todd Burpo, prepoznao je sjenku smrti na Coltonovom licu. Taj je pogled već vidio prilikom posjeta bolesnicima u bolnicama, staračkim domovima i bolnicama. S pogoršanjem Coltonovog stanja i doktorima koji su i dalje bili zbunjeni, Todd i njegova supruga Sonja donijeli su odluku da odvedu Coltona u regionalni medicinski centar Great Plains, koji je udaljen devedeset minuta u North Platteu u Nebraski. CT je brzo otkrio problem, pucanje slijepog crijeva. To je također značilo da je otrovni iscjedak punio Coltonov trbuh pet dana.

Zar bolničko osoblje zaista nije očekivalo da će Colton preživjeti?


Glumac Rob Moran (lijevo), koji u filmu tumači hirurga, i pravi dr. Timothy O'Holleran (desno) koji je operirao Coltona Burpa.

Nakon procjene situacije, bolničko osoblje je znalo da je Coltonovo stanje loše. U knjizi Coltonov otac piše da je dr. Timothy O'Holleran (na slici) rekao: "Nije u dobroj formi. Moramo ući i očistiti ga. Znat ćemo više kad ga otvorimo. "

Nakon dvije operacije čišćenja otrova iz trbuha njegovog sina, Todd Burpo kaže da su liječnici i medicinske sestre u Regionalnom medicinskom centru Great Plains bili začuđeni što su nedugo nakon što su osjetili da ne mogu više učiniti i preporučili Toddu i Sonji da odvedu Coltona u dječjoj bolnici, bilo u Omahi ili Denveru, Coltonova crijeva odjednom su ponovo počela raditi i stanje koje mu se pogoršalo dramatično se poboljšalo.

Istinita priča iza Nebo je za Real film otkriva da je otprilike u tom trenutku medicinska sestra nasamo ponudila nekoliko riječi, objašnjavajući Toddu da su liječnici i medicinske sestre očekivali da će Colton Burpo umrijeti. Medicinska sestra je rekla Toddu da su im ljekari rekli da njegovoj porodici ne pružaju nikakvo ohrabrenje, jer nisu mislili da će njegov sin uspjeti. Naglasila je da kad ljekari kažu da neko neće uspjeti, oni to ne čine. Nakon što je svjedočila Coltonovom iznenadnom preokretu, medicinska sestra je rekla da vjeruje da je to moralo biti čudo.

Je li pravi Colton Burpo tehnički bio ravan?

Ne. Kao u filmu, Coltonovo srce nikada nije prestalo kucati. Pravi Todd Burpo izjavio je to tokom intervjua sa Megyn Kelly na Kelly File. "Pa, on nikada nije ravnao ili šifrirao, ali je razgovarajući s hirurgom rekao djeci da su mala, nemaju upozorenje, vitalni znaci ne blijede, samo su tu ili su otišli. Ali tehnički to nije uradio samo ravna linija. "

Kako bi objasnio kako je njegov sin posjetio nebo bez smrti, Todd se sjetio da Biblija govori o nekoliko ljudi koji su posjetili nebo bez smrti, uključujući apostola Ivana i osobnog poznanika apostola Pavla. -Heaven je za pravu knjigu

Je li se otac, Todd Burpo, u privatnoj sobi u bolnici nasrnuo na Boga?


Todd Burpo sa sinom Coltonom na ramenima u novembru 2003., 8 mjeseci nakon Coltonove hitne operacije. Umetnuto: Fotografija koja se koristi za naslovnicu knjige.

Koliko je dugo pravi Colton Burpo bio u bolnici?

Pravi Colton Burpo bio je u bolnici mnogo duže nego što film implicira. Colton je započeo bolnički boravak u ponedjeljak, 3. marta 2003. (prvo u Imperialu, zatim u Regionalnom medicinskom centru Great Plains). Nakon dvije operacije na Great Plainsu (radi čišćenja otrova i infekcije iz trbuha) i komplikacija crijeva, konačno je otpušten u srijedu, 19. marta 2003. nakon otprilike šesnaest dana. -Heaven je za pravu knjigu

U kojem trenutku su Coltonovi roditelji počeli vjerovati da je njihov sin posjetio Nebo?

Do spoznaje je došlo četiri mjeseca nakon operacije. "Ono što nam je zaista prvo privuklo pažnju", kaže Todd Burpo, "bilo je to kada nam je mogao reći gdje smo i šta radimo dok je bio na operaciji, jer kako to netko može izmisliti. Pokušao sam razlučiti šta je on rekao je, ali scena u kojoj je rekao da me je vidio kako vičem na Boga i njegovu mamu u drugoj prostoriji, sve je to najprije zakucao. To nam je bilo prvo. " -FoxNewsInsider.com

Tada je otac Coltona Burpa postao svjestan onoga što mu je sin cijelo vrijeme pokušavao reći. "Sjećam se da je moj sin tada u toj sobi pogledao u mene i rekao: 'Tata, znaš li da sam umalo umro?' I moja prva pomisao je bila, možda ste čuli da je medicinska sestra to rekla, ili su možda mislili da je pod anestezijom, znate, a nije. " -CBN.com

Je li Colton zaista tvrdio da je upoznao Popa (njegovog pradjeda) na nebu?

Da, Nebo je za Real istinita priča otkriva da je, kao u filmu, pravi Colton Burpo rekao svom ocu da se sreo i ostao s Popom (njegov pradjed po Toddinoj majci) dok je bio na nebu. Pop (na slici ispod), čije je pravo ime bilo Lawrence Barber, umro je u julu 1976. u saobraćajnoj nesreći kada je Todd imao oko šest godina. Todd je bio blizak sa svojim djedom jer je često boravio kod djeda i bake kada ga je majka pokušala zaštititi od bipolarnog poremećaja vlastitog oca, koji je ponekad zahtijevao boravak u bolnici. Pop je imao samo šezdeset i jednu godinu kada je preminuo. Fotografije Popa koje Todd (Greg Kinnear) prikazuje Coltona (Connor Corum) u filmu su stvarne fotografije Popa (na slici ispod, desno). -Heaven je za pravu knjigu


Pop sa Coltonovim ocem Toddom kao dječakom u filmu (lijevo). Desno: Fotografija pravog popa neposredno prije njegove smrti, i fotografija popa sa 29 godina, ona na kojoj ga je Colton prepoznao.

Je li Colton prepoznao Popa na slici?

Je li Colton zaista tvrdio da je vidio svoju pobačenu sestru na nebu?

Da. "Ulazio sam kroz nebeska vrata", kaže pravi Colton Burpo, "a ova djevojčica je istrčala na mene i zagrlila me. Sada, kad sam bio mlađi, nisam baš bio tip koji se grli, pa sam samo sjedio ovdje, "U redu, tko si ti? Zašto me diraš?" I na kraju mi ​​je rekla ko je ona, i to je bilo nevjerovatno jer joj je konačno bilo drago što je neko iz njene porodice na nebu. " -FoxNewsInsider.com

U odvojenom intervjuu sa CBN, Colton je malo detaljnije opisao svoju pobačenu sestru: "Izgledala je kao Cassie, ali je imala smeđu kosu." Cassie je Coltonova starija sestra.

Coltonovi roditelji, Todd i Sonja, tvrde da nikada nisu rekli sinu o njegovoj pobačenoj sestri, koju su izgubili prije nego što se Colton rodio. Sonja Burpo je pobacila 20. juna 1998. godine kada je bila trudna sa svojim drugim djetetom. "Kako reći djetetu da vam je dijete umrlo u trbuhu?" -FoxNewsInsider.com

Jesu li Coltonovi roditelji znali spol njihove pobačene bebe prije nego što im je Colton rekao?

Ne. Kao u filmu, Coltonova majka, Sonja Burpo, otkrila je da je pobačena djevojčica tek nakon što joj je Colton rekao da je vidio svoju sestru na nebu. U trenutku pobačaja, Sonja je imala dva meseca. Colton je opisao svoju sestru na nebu kako izgleda kao njegova starija sestra Cassie, ali s tamnom kosom i nešto manjom. -Heaven je za pravu knjigu

Je li Coltonova starija sestra Cassie znala za pobačaj njene majke?

Da. U istraživanju Nebo je za Real istinita priča, otkrili smo da je Cassie, Coltonova starija sestra, znala za majčin pobačaj prije Coltonovog puknuća slijepog crijeva. "Objasnili smo to Cassie da je bila starija", navodi Todd Burpo u knjizi. "Ali nismo rekli Coltonu, ocjenjujući temu malo izvan sposobnosti četvorogodišnjeg djeteta da razumije." Cassie je imala otprilike šest i pol u vrijeme Coltonovog iskustva bliske smrti.

Je li lik Thomasa Haden Churcha, Jay Wilkins, zasnovan na stvarnoj osobi?


Iako je lik Thomasa Haden Churcha, Jay Wilkins, uvelike izmišljen, on u knjizi najviše podsjeća na Toddovog dobrog prijatelja Phila Harrisa (u najboljem slučaju labava veza).

Je li Colton dijelio nadu u Isusa s umirućim dječakom u bolnici?

Ne. Kao što je dokazano u knjizi, Colton nije posjetio krevet umirućeg dječaka kako bi mu pružio utjehu. On je ipak pratio svog oca Todda u starački dom kako bi posjetio umirućeg čovjeka po imenu Harold Greer i njegovu porodicu. Međutim, u filmu se ova posjeta odvija prije operacije, a ne nakon nje kao u knjizi. Tokom same posjete, Colton je prišao čovjekovom krevetu, slično kao što je dječak iz filma, i rekao mu da će sve biti u redu i da će prva osoba koju će vidjeti na nebu biti Isus. Todd navodi da je tada shvatio da je njegov sin postao glasnik.

Je li Colton dao nadu ženi čiji je sin poginuo u ratu?

Kako je Colton Burpo opisao Isusovo pojavljivanje?

Todd Burpo says that they spent three years showing Colton pictures of Jesus, and it wasn't until Colton saw Akiane Kramarik's painting of Jesus, titled Prince of Peace: The Resurrection (pictured below), that Colton said, "This one's right." Akiane Kramarik is an astounding child prodigy who is a self-taught painter. Her work sells for thousands of dollars. She says that her inspiration comes from God and her visits to Heaven. To learn more about Akiane, watch the Akiane Kramarik CNN segment that is highlighted in the movie.


Inspired by God and her visits to Heaven, Akiane Kramarik (right) painted this portrait of Jesus (left) when she was only 8-years-old. Colton Burpo recognized it as the Jesus he too saw in Heaven.

If Heaven was wonderful, why did Colton want to come back?

Colton's father, Todd Burpo, says that he asked his son this very question. In an interview with the Christian Broadcasting Network, Colton responded in his own words. "I knew that I was leaving Heaven because Jesus came to me and said, 'Colton, you need to go back.' Even though I didn't want to go back, he said that he was answering my dad's prayer." Todd says it was the prayer that he made in private at the hospital when he lashed out at God.

For how long was Colton Burpo in Heaven?

The real Colton Burpo supposedly told his father that he was in Heaven for three minutes. After hearing about everything his son had done in Heaven, Todd Burpo knew that such a short amount of time didn't make sense. As in the movie, he turned to the Bible for an answer and recalled that the Bible says that with the Lord, "a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day." -Heaven is for Real book

Had the family experienced any other miracles?

Da. According to the real Todd Burpo, one such miracle unfolded in the months prior to Colton's trip to Heaven. Todd noticed a lump under the surface of his left nipple. The doctor performed a biopsy and the results came back as hyperplasia, the precursor to breast cancer. A lumpectomy was performed. However, when the removed tissue was tested, it was discovered to be benign, no longer exhibiting hyperplasia. Todd's doctor had no explanation for the sudden reversal.

Could Colton's father being a pastor have influenced his story?

Many who have read the book have wondered if Colton's story would have been the same if his father was not a pastor and if his family were, for instance, atheists. Those who believe Colton Burpo is telling the truth counter by arguing that it was Colton's strong faith at such a young age that allowed God to let him visit Heaven.

Some critics, including Pastor David Platt, have also pointed out that not only does Colton's story contradict certain elements of scripture, it is another addition to a flourishing genre of books that attempt to purport biographical tales of Heaven and the Afterlife, with the main problem being that many of these descriptions of Heaven often do not correlate with one another. This leads one to ask the question, with numerous biographical stories of Heaven on bookstore shelves, how do we know which ones, if any, are based in truth? These same critics usually conclude by pointing out the high dollar amounts being made from such books by Christian publishers.

Did Colton's father, Todd Burpo, write the book himself?

No. The book Heaven is for Real was co-written by Lynn Vincent, who also worked with Sarah Palin on her best seller Going Rogue.

What prompted Colton's father to write the book?

Colton's father, Pastor Todd Burpo, began preaching about his son's incredible story. Word of the miracle spread and a pastor friend, Phil McCallum, offered to introduce Todd to certain individuals in the publishing world. The Nashville publishing house of Thomas Nelson, which specializes in Christian books and Bibles, eventually bought the rights. -USAToday.com

As of April 2014, the book had sold eight million copies and had spent three years on the New York Times Best Sellers List. With the release of the movie, that sales figure is projected to rise significantly. -FoxNewsInsider.com

Did Colton see a coming Armageddon while he was in Heaven?

During a January 2012 interview with Natalie Tizzel on the Canadian television show 100 Huntley Street, the real Colton Burpo attempted to describe the Armageddon that he claims he got to see a preview of while he was in Heaven. "Well, the battle was with Jesus, the angels, and the good people goin' against Satan, the monsters, and the bad people. They were fighting, and in the end, Jesus does win and the Armageddon would be over, but it has a long time to do. I got to see it happening, and I got to see my dad in the battle. I understood what was going on because, well, I was up there for a while so, you figure out what's goin' on after a while."

Has Colton Burpo's experience changed his feelings on life and death?

"I'm not really scared of death now," says Colton in 2014, "because, first of all, I know what to expect, so I have that going for me. But another thing is, before I die, I wanna be able to share as much as I can, so I can bring as many people with me." -FoxNewsInsider.com

Does Colton at age 14 still remember his experience from 10 years ago?

"Well, of my hospital stay and all the events leading up to it, that's a little foggy," says the real Colton Burpo, "but my experience in Heaven is very vivid. I remember just all of the people up in Heaven. There were people, angels, animals, and they had so many things up there that you could do." -FoxNewsInsider.com


A 14-year-old Colton Burpo (right) and his parents, Todd (left) and Sonja (middle), are interviewed by Megyn Kelly in April 2014, just prior to the movie's release.

Is Colton's family happy with the movie?

Da. "We can talk about how well Greg Kinnear played me, but how they captured my family, they were spot on," says the real Todd Burpo. "The very first discussions we had were [about me saying] 'you have to protect this story' because at the end of the day my son is 'going to see what you put on a movie screen' and one day he is going to hold me accountable for it. I'm not going to risk that and they said, 'We understand.'"

Burpo continued, "This child actor, Connor, God brought him to this movie. A kid that age can't act, so God had to find a kid that was just like Colton and He did." -ChristianPost.com

After exploring the Heaven is for Real true story above, view the related interviews below. Watch interviews with Colton Burpo and his father Todd Burpo and mother Sonja. Listen to Colton describe Heaven and meet the child prodigy, Akiane Kramarik, who painted the only depiction of Jesus that Colton recognized.

A 14-year-old Colton Burpo describes Heaven to interviewer Megyn Kelly. He also talks about meeting his miscarried sister, something his parents claim they had never told him about. Kelly asks the parents how they respond to those who don't believe in an afterlife, who have accused them of putting ideas in their son's head.

This segment aired on the Christian Broadcasting Network and features Colton Burpo home movie footage and photos shot before his appendix burst and he found himself on a hospital operating table close to death. Colton's parents, Todd and Sonja Burpo, discuss the ways Colton revealed to them that he had visited Heaven and spoke to Jesus.

Colton Burpo is interviewed by Natalie Tizzel in January 2012 for the Canadian television program 100 Huntley Street. During the interview, Colton describes seeing the coming Armageddon while he was in Heaven. He says that he saw his dad fighting in the battle as one of the "good people" who were going against the "bad people."

David Platt, senior pastor of The Church at Brook Hills in Birmingham, Alabama, discusses Heaven is for Real vs. the Bible. He also offers a list of other bestselling books about supposed trips to Heaven, reminding the audience of the enormous sums of money being made by the publishers. He wonders why so many people have turned to these books instead of the Bible for their own interpretations of Heaven.

The band Read You and Me partners with Colton Burpo for his music video debut in this version of 'Amazing Grace (My Chains Are Gone)'. The video was shot in 2012 when Colton was thirteen.

Glenn Beck narrates this CNN segment on Akiane Kramarik, the self-taught child prodigy whose portrait of Jesus, titled Prince of Peace: The Resurrection, caught Colton Burpo's eye when his father showed it to him. After three years of being shown Jesus pictures, Colton said, "That one's right," upon seeing Akiane's portrait. Akiane says her inspiration comes from God and her visits to Heaven.

Pazi na Heaven is for Real movie trailer for the film starring Greg Kinnear as Pastor Todd Burpo. Adapted from the real Burpo's bestselling 2010 book, Heaven is for Real: A Little Boy's Astounding Story of His Trip to Heaven and Back, the movie retells the story of his then three-year-old son, Colton, who after a near-death experience began sharing details of his visit to Heaven.


3. Free-will Theodicies of Hell

Unlike the Augustinians, Arminian theologians emphasize the role that free will plays in determining one&rsquos eternal destiny in heaven or hell they also accept the so-called libertarian understanding of free will, according to which freedom and determinism are incompatible (see the entry on free will)). Because not even an omnipotent being can causally determine a genuinely free choice, the reality of free will, they say, introduces into the universe an element that, from God&rsquos perspective, is utterly random in that it lies outside of God&rsquos direct causal control. Accordingly, if some person should freely act wrongly&mdashor worse yet, freely reject God&rsquos grace&mdashin a given set of circumstances, then it was not within God&rsquos power to induce this person to have freely acted otherwise, at least not in the exact same circumstances in which the person was left free to act wrongly. So in that sense, our human free choices, particularly the bad ones, are genuine obstacles that God must work around in order to bring a set of loving purposes to fruition. And this may suggest the further possibility that, with respect to some free persons, God cannot oboje preserve their their libertarian freedom in the matter i prevent them from freely continuing to reject God forever. As C. S. Lewis, an early 20th Century proponent of such a theodicy, once put it, &ldquoIn creating beings with free will, omnipotence from the outset submits to the possibility of &hellip defeat. &hellip I willingly believe that the damned are, in one sense, successful, rebels to the end that the doors of hell are locked on the inside&rdquo (Lewis 1944, 115).

The basic idea here is that hell, along with the self imposed misery it entails, is essentially a freely embraced condition nego a forcibly imposed punishment [7] and because freedom and determinism are incompatible, the creation of free moral agents carries an inherent risk of ultimate tragedy. Whether essential to our personhood or not, free will is a precious gift, an expression of God&rsquos love for us and because the very love that seeks our salvation also respects our freedom, God will not prevent us from separating ourselves from him, even forever, if that is what we freely choose to do. So even though the perfectly loving God would never reject anyone, sinners can reject God and thus freely separate themselves from the divine nature they not only have the power as free agents to reject God for a season, during the time when they are mired in ambiguity and subject to illusion, but they are also able to cling forever to the illusions that make such rejection possible in the first place.

But why suppose it even possible that a free creature should freely reject zauvijek the redemptive will of a perfectly loving and infinitely resourceful God? In the relevant literature over the past several decades, advocates of a free-will theodicy of hell have offered at least three quite different answers to this question:

  1. Perhaps the most commonly expressed answer concerns the possibility of an irrevocable decision to reject God forever. Jerry Walls thus describes the damned as those who have made a decisive choice of evil (see Walls 1992, Ch. 5), Richard Swinburne suggests that &ldquoonce our will is fixed for bad, we shall never [again] desire or seek what we have missed&rdquo because we have made an &ldquoirrevocable choice of character&rdquo (Swinburne 1989, 199), and R. Zachary Manis interprets Kierkegaard, whose view he defends, as suggesting that the &ldquodamned are so filled with hatred &hellip so motivated by malice and spite &hellip that they will to remain in their state of torment, all for the sake of demonstrating that they are in the right, and that God is in the wrong&rdquo (Manis 2016, 290).
  2. Another proposed answer rejects altogether the traditional idea that those in hell are lost without any further hope of restoration. Buckareff and Plug (2005) have thus argued from the very nature of the divine perfections (including perfect love) that God will always have &ldquoan open-door policy towards those in hell&mdashmaking it [always] possible for those in hell to escape&rdquo (39) and similarly, Raymond VanArragon has argued that those in hell continue to reject God freely only if they retain the power to act otherwise and hence also the power to repent and be saved (see VanArragon 2010). Because the damned never lose forever their libertarian freedom in relation to God&rsquos offer of salvation, in other words, and never lose forever the psychological possibility of genuine repentance, there is no irreversible finality in the so-called final judgment. [8] Still, the possibility remains, according to this view, that some will never avail themselves of the opportunity to escape from hell.
  3. A third proposed answer rests upon a Molinist perspective, according to which God&rsquos omniscience includes what philosophers now call middle knowledge, which in turn includes far more than a simple foreknowledge of a person&rsquos future free actions. It also includes a perfect knowledge uf what a person would have done freely in circumstances that will never even obtain. So with respect to the decision whether or not to create a given person and to place that person in a given set of circumstances, God can base this decision in part on a knowledge of what the person would do freely if created and placed in these precise circumstances&mdashor if, for that matter, the person were placed in any other possible set of circumstances as well. From this Molinist perspective, William Lane Craig has defended the possibility that some free persons are utterly irredeemable in this sense: short of overriding their libertarian freedom, nothing God might do for them&mdashwhether it be to impart a special revelation. to administer an appropriate punishment, or to help them in some other way&mdashwill ever win them over or persuade them to repent as a means of becoming reconciled to God (Craig 1989). Craig himself calls this dreadful property of being irredeemable transworld damnation (184).

In part because it rests upon the idea of middle knowledge, which is itself controversial, Craig&rsquos idea of transworld damnation may be the most controversial idea that any proponent of a free will theodicy of hell has put forward. It also raises the question of why a morally perfect God would create someone (or instantiate the individual essence of someone) whom God already knew in advance would be irredeemable. By way of an answer, Craig insists on the possibility that some persons would submit to God freely only in a world in which others should damn themselves forever it is even possible, he insists, that God must permit a large number of people to damn themselves in order to fill heaven with a larger number of redeemed. Craig himself has put it this way:

As this passage illustrates, Craig accepts at least the possibility that, because of free will, history includes an element of irreducible tragedy he even accepts the possibility that if fewer people were damned to hell, then fewer people would have been saved as well. So perhaps God knows from the outset that a complete triumph over evil is unfeasible no matter what divine actions might be taken as a result, God merely tries to minimize the defeat, to cut the losses, and in the process to fill heaven with more saints than otherwise would have been feasible. (For a critique of this reply, see Talbott 1992 for Craig&rsquos rejoinder, see Craig 1993 and for a critique of Craig&rsquos rejoinder, see Seymour 2000a.)

In any case, how one assesses each of the three answers above will depend upon how one understands the idea of moral freedom and the role it plays, if any, in someone landing in either heaven or hell. The first two answers also represent a fundamental disagreement concerning the existence of free will in hell and perhaps even the nature of free will itself. According to the first answer, the inhabitants of hell are those who have freely acquired a consistently evil will and an irreversibly bad moral character. So for the rest of eternity, these inhabitants of hell do not even continue rejecting God freely in any sense that requires the psychological possibility of choosing otherwise. But is such an irreversibly bad moral character even coherent or metaphysically possible? Not according to the second answer, which implies that a morally perfect God would never cease providing those in hell with opportunities for repentance and providing these opportunities in contexts where such repentance remains a genuine psychological possibility. All of which points once again to the need for a clearer understanding of the nature and purpose of moral freedom. (See section 5.1 below for some additional issues that arise in connection with freedom in heaven and hell.)

3.1 Moral Freedom and Rationality

Given the New Testament imagery associated with Gehenna, the Lake of Fire, and the outer darkness&mdashwhere there is &ldquoweeping and gnashing of teeth&rdquo&mdashthe question is ne how someone in a context of ambiguity, ignorance, and misperception could freely choose separation from the divine nature over union with it the question is instead how someone could oboje experience such separation (or the unbearable misery of hell, for example) i freely choose to remain in such a state forever. This is not a problem for the Augustinians because, according to them, the damned have no further choice in the matter once their everlasting punishment commences. But it is a problem for those free-will theists who believe that the damned freely embrace an eternal destiny apart from God, and the latter view requires, at the very least, a plausible account of the relevant freedom.

Now, as already indicated, those who embrace a free-will theodicy of hell typically appeal, in the words of Jonathan Kvanvig, to &ldquoa libertarian account of human freedom in order to provide a complete response to&rdquo the problem of hell (Kvanvig 2011, 54). But of course such a &ldquocomplete response&rdquo would also require a relatively complete account of libertarian freedom. According to Kvanvig, &ldquosome formulation of the Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP) correctly describes this notion of [libertarian] freedom&rdquo and, as he also points out, this &ldquoprinciple claims that in order to act freely one must be able to do otherwise&rdquo (48). But at most PAP merely sets forth a necessary condition of someone acting freely in the libertarian sense, and it includes no requirement that a free choice be even minimally rational. So consider again the example, introduced in section 2.1 above, of a schizophrenic young man who kills his loving mother, believing her to be a sinister space alien who has devoured his real mother and this time suppose further that he does so in a context in which PAP obtains and he categorically could have chosen otherwise (perhaps because he worries about possible retaliation from other sinister space aliens). Why suppose that such an irrational choice and action, even if not causally determined, would qualify as an instance of acting freely? Either our seriously deluded beliefs, particularly those with destructive consequences in our own lives, are in principle correctable by some degree of powerful evidence against them, or the choices that rest upon them are simply too irrational to qualify as free moral choices.

If that is true, then not just any causally undetermined choice, or just any agent caused choice, or just any randomly generated selection between alternatives will qualify as a free choice for which the choosing agent is morally responsible. Moral freedom also requires a minimal degree of rationality on the part of the choosing agent, including an ability to learn from experience, an ability to discern normal reasons for acting, and a capacity for moral improvement. With good reason, therefore, do we exclude lower animals, small children, the severely brain damaged, and perhaps even paranoid schizophrenics from the class of free moral agents. For, however causally undetermined some of their behaviors might be, they all lack some part of the rationality required to qualify as free moral agents. [9]

Now consider again the view of C. S. Lewis and many other Christians concerning the bliss that union with the divine nature entails, so they believe. and the objective horror that separation from it entails, and suppose that the outer darkness&mdashthat is, a soul suspended alone in nothingness, without even a physical order to experience and without any human relationships at all&mdashshould be the logical limit (short of annihilation) of possible separation from the divine nature. These ideas seem to lead naturally to a dilemma argument for the conclusion that a freely chosen eternal destiny apart from God is metaphysically impossible. For either a person S is fully informed about who God is and what both union with the divine nature and separation from it would entail, or S is not so informed. If S je fully informed and should choose a life apart from God anyway, then S&rsquos choice would be utterly and almost inconceivably irrational such a choice would fall well below the threshold required for moral freedom. And if S is not fully informed, then God can of course continue to work with S, subjecting S to new experiences, shattering S&rsquos illusions, and correcting S&rsquos misjudgments in perfectly natural ways that do not interfere with S&rsquos freedom. Beyond that, for as long as S remains less than fully informed, S is simply in no position to reject the true God S may reject a caricature of God, perhaps even a caricature of S&rsquos own devising, but S is in no position to reject the true God. Therefore, in either case, whether S is fully informed or less than fully informed, it is simply not possible that S should reject the true God freely.

By way of a reply to this argument and in defense of his own free&ndashwill approach to hell&mdashwhich, by the way, in no way excludes the possibility that some inhabitants of hell may eventually escape from it&mdashJerry Walls concedes that &ldquothe choice of evil is impossible for anyone who has a fully formed awareness that God is the source of happiness and sin the cause of misery&rdquo (Walls 1992, 133). But Walls also contends that, even if those in hell have rejected a caricature of God rather than the true God, it remains possible that some of them will finally make a decisive choice of evil and will thus remain in hell forever. He then makes a three-fold claim: first, that the damned have in some sense deluded themselves, second, that they have the power to cling to their delusions forever, and third, that God cannot forcibly remove their self-imposed deceptions without interfering with their freedom in relation to God (Walls 1992, Ch. 5).

For more detailed discussions of these and related issues, see Swinburne 1989 (Ch. 12), Craig 1989 and 1993, Talbott 2007, Walls 1992 (Ch. 5), 2004a, and 2004b, Kronen and Reitan 2011 (142&ndash146), and Manis 2016 and 2019. See also sections 4.2 and 5.1 below.

3.2 Moral Freedom and Irreparable Harm

Consider now the two conditions under which we humans typically feel justified in interfering with the freedom of others (see Talbott 1990a, 38). We feel justified, on the one hand, in preventing one person from doing irreparable harm&mdashor more accurately, harm that no human being can repair&mdashto another a loving father may thus report his own son to the police in an effort to prevent the son from committing murder. We also feel justified, on the other hand, in preventing our loved ones from doing irreparable harm to themselves a loving father may thus physically overpower his daughter in an effort to prevent her from committing suicide.

Now one might, it is true, draw a number of faulty inferences from such examples as these, in part because we humans tend to think of irreparable harm within the context of a very limited timeframe, a person&rsquos life on earth. Harm that no human being can repair may nonetheless be harm that God can repair. It does not follow, therefore, that a loving and omnipotent God, whose goal is the reconciliation of the world, would prevent every suicide and every murder it follows only that such a God would prevent every harm that not even omnipotence could repair at some future time, and neither suicide nor murder is necessarily an instance of that ljubazan štete. So even though a loving God might sometimes permit murder, such a God would never permit one person to annihilate the soul of another or to destroy the very possibility of future happiness in another and even though a loving God might sometimes permit suicide, such a God would never permit genuine loved ones to destroy the very possibility of future happiness in themselves either. The latter conclusion concerning suicide is no doubt the more controversial, and Jonathan Kvanvig in particular has challenged it (see Kvanvig 1993, 83&ndash88). But whatever the resolution of this particular debate, perhaps both parties can agree that God, as Creator, would deal with a much larger picture and a much longer timeframe than that with which we humans are immediately concerned.

So the idea of irreparable harm&mdashthat is, of harm that not even omnipotence could ever repair&mdashis critical at this point. It is most relevant, perhaps, in cases where someone imagines sinners freely choosing annihilation (Kvanvig), or imagines them freely making a decisive and irreversible choice of evil (Walls), or imagines them freely locking the gates of hell from the inside (C. S. Lewis). But proponents of the so-called escapism understanding of hell can plausibly counter that hell is not necessarily an instance of such irreparable harm, and Raymond VanArragon in particular raises the possibility that God might permit some loved ones to continue forever rejecting God in a non-decisive way that would not, at any given time, harm them irreparably (see VanArragon 2010, 37ff see also Kvanvig 2011, 52). Here it is perhaps worth noting how broadly VanArragon defines the term &ldquorejecting God&rdquo (see 2010, 30&ndash31)&mdashso broadly, in fact, that any sin for which one is morally responsible would count as an instance of someone rejecting God. He thus explicitly states that rejecting God in his broad sense requires neither an awareness of God nor a conscious decision, however confused it may be, to embrace a life apart from God. Accordingly, persistent sinning without end would never result, given such an account, in anything like the traditional hell, whether the latter be understood as a lake of fire, the outer darkness, or any other condition that would reveal the full horror of separation from God (given the traditional Christian understanding of such separation). Neither would such a sinner ever achieve a state of full clarity. For given VanArragon&rsquos understanding of libertarian freedom, continuing to sin forever would require a perpetual context of ambiguity, ignorance, and misperception.


Interesting Facts About The Temple Of Heaven

-The Temple of Heaven (along with the Forbidden City) is one of the two best examples of Ming Dynasty architecture in Beijing, or very possibly in the whole of China.

-Despite being less visited (although still very popular), the Temple of Heaven is actually 4 times larger than the Forbidden City at 2,700,000 square meters.

-During the Ming Dynasty, emperors would use the Temple of Heaven as the location of the Heaven Worship Ceremony for better harvests.

-The main structures in the Temple of Heaven all lie along the south-north axis, as with most ancient structures in China. Secondary structures can be found to the side.


Annabel Beam was stuck in a tree while she went to the afterlife

Young Annabel Beam had been suffering from a mysterious spate of medical issues for years. Doctors and her family alike were flummoxed until she finally received a diagnosis of pseudo-obstruction motility disorder, reports Danas. That was only so comforting, however, since her illness was rare and incurable. It looked as if Annabel would be incapacitated for life.

Things changed dramatically and unexpectedly in 2011. That's when Annabel fell headfirst into a hollow cottonwood tree in her front yard. After she'd been trapped there for five hours, reports The Blaze, emergency workers were finally able to extract her. Shortly thereafter, the Beam family discovered that Annabel's disorder had abruptly and permanently gone away. For quite a few families, that's enough to mark an event as a miracle or medical anomaly. What's even more striking, for many, is Annabel's claim that she went to Heaven while her body was trapped inside the hollow tree.

As per Annabel's account, Heaven is a peaceful place with plenty of light and no pain. She also says that she met Jesus, who has brown hair and wears a white robe with a purple sash. Annabel asked if she could stay, but Jesus told her that she had further business back on Earth. When she returned, her family, like others whose loved ones have gone through similar experiences, published a book. The resulting account, Miracles from Heaven, was released as a film in 2016.

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